English

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Etymology 1

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Abbreviations

Noun

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par

  1. Abbreviation of paragraph.
    • 2022, Liam McIlvanney, The Heretic, page 419:
      And this particular Chisolm — as the papers had spelled out in headlines and opening pars — had been a soldier, a corporal in the British Army.
  2. Abbreviation of parenthesis.
  3. Abbreviation of parish.

Adjective

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par

  1. Abbreviation of parallel.

Etymology 2

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Borrowed from French par (through, by), from Latin per (through). Doublet of per.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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par

  1. (in compounds) By; with.
Usage notes
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  • Used frequently in Middle English in phrases taken from French, being sometimes written as a part of the word which it governs; as, par amour, or paramour; par cas, or parcase; par fay, or parfay.

Etymology 3

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Borrowed from Latin pār (equal).

Noun

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par (countable and uncountable, plural pars)

  1. Equal value; equality of nominal and actual value; the value expressed on the face or in the words of a certificate of value, as a bond or other commercial paper.
  2. Equality of condition or circumstances.
  3. (golf, mostly uncountable) The allotted number of strokes to reach the hole.
    He needs to make this shot for par.
  4. (golf, countable) A hole in which a player achieves par.
    • 2009 January 18, “Paul Casey storms to four-stroke lead in Abu Dhabi”, in Herald Sun[1]:
      Kaymer started with six straight pars before making a birdie on the seventh and an eagle on the eighth.
  5. (UK) An amount which is taken as an average or mean.
Coordinate terms
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(golf score):

Derived terms
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terms derived from par (noun)

Verb

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par (third-person singular simple present pars, present participle parring, simple past and past participle parred)

  1. (transitive, golf) To reach the hole in the allotted number of strokes.
    He will need to par every hole in order to win this game.

Etymology 4

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Noun

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par (plural pars)

  1. Alternative form of parr (young salmon)

Etymology 5

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Borrowed from Jamaican Creole, itself from partner.

Verb

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par (third-person singular simple present pars, present participle parring, simple past and past participle parred)

  1. (MLE, MTE) To associate, to chill, to hang.
    • 2007 May 21, “Sirens” (track 3), in Maths + English[2], performed by Dizzee Rascal:
      Par with the hard heads and young offenders.
    • 2014 September 27, “Fire in the Booth”‎[3]performed by Stormzy:
      I par with the best, this is bars in the flesh.
    • 2016 August 12, “Don't run” (track 2), in PARTYNEXTDOOR 3(PX3)[4], performed by PARTYNEXTDOOR:
      Don't par wih a broke boy, I'll do the most.

See also

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Anagrams

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Ambonese Malay

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Portuguese para.

Preposition

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par

  1. for
  2. in order to
    par bali rokoin order to buy tobacco

References

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  • D. Takaria, C. Pieter (1998) Kamus Bahasa Melayu Ambon-Indonesia[5], Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa

Aromanian

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Etymology 1

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From Latin pāreō. Compare Daco-Romanian părea, par.

Alternative forms

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Verb

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par first-singular present indicative (past participle pãrutã)

  1. to seem, appear
Derived terms
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See also
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Etymology 2

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From Latin pālus. Compare Daco-Romanian par.

Alternative forms

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Noun

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par

  1. stake
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Chavacano

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Etymology

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Inherited from Spanish par (pair).

Noun

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par

  1. pair

Danish

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Etymology 1

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From late Old Danish par, from Middle Low German par, from Latin pār.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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par n (singular definite parret, plural indefinite par)

  1. pair
  2. couple
Inflection
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Etymology 2

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Borrowed from English par.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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par c

  1. (golf) par (the allotted number of strokes to reach the hole)

Etymology 3

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See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation

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Verb

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par

  1. imperative of parre

Faroese

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Etymology

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From late Old Norse par, from Middle Low German par, from Latin pār.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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par n (genitive singular pars, plural pør)

  1. pair

Declension

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Declension of par
n5 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative par parið pør pørini
accusative par parið pør pørini
dative pari parinum pørum pørunum
genitive pars parsins para paranna

French

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Etymology

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Inherited from Middle French par, from Old French par, from Latin per, from Proto-Indo-European *peri.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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par

  1. through
    par la fenêtrethrough the window
    aller par le parcgo through the park
  2. by (used to introduce a means; used to introduce an agent in a passive construction)
    voyager par traintravel by train
    par surpriseby surprise
    le bateau est attaqué par des pirates.the boat is [being] attacked by pirates.
  3. over (used to express direction)
    Viens par ici !Come over here!
  4. from (used to describe the origin of something, especially a view or movement)
    voir par devantsee from the back
    le liquide est arrivé par le robinetthe liquid arrived from the tap
  5. around, round (inside of)
    par tout le cinémaall around the cinema
  6. on (situated on, used in certain phrases)
    par terreon the ground
  7. on, at, in (used to denote a time when something occurs)
    par un beau jouron a nice day
    par un soirin one evening
  8. in
    marcher par deuxwalk in twos
  9. per, a, an
    trois fois par semainethree times a week
  10. out of (used to describe the reason for something)
    par pure colèreout of pure anger
    par tristesseout of sadness
  11. for

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • English: par

Noun

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par m (plural pars)

  1. (golf) par

Further reading

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Anagrams

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Friulian

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Etymology

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From Latin per.

Preposition

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par

  1. for
  2. through
  3. by

Gabrielino-Fernandeño

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Proto-Uto-Aztecan *pa.

Noun

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par

  1. water

References

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  • Kroeber, Shoshonean Dialects of California, in University of California Publications: American archaeology and ethnology, volume 4, page 81
  • HG

German

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Determiner

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par (invariable)

  1. Obsolete spelling of paar (a few, couple).

Icelandic

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Low German par, from Latin pār (equal).

Noun

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par n (genitive singular pars, nominative plural pör)

  1. pair
  2. a couple, two people who are dating
  3. (poker) pair
Declension
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Synonyms
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Etymology 2

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Borrowed from English par.

Noun

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par n (genitive singular pars, no plural)

  1. (golf) par
Declension
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Indo-Portuguese

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Etymology

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From Portuguese para, from Old Galician-Portuguese pera, from Latin per (through) + ad (to).

Preposition

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par

  1. (Diu) to (indicates indirect object)
    • 1883, Hugo Schuchardt, Kreolische Studien, volume 3:
      Já fallou par su pai aquêl mais piquin, []
      The youngest one told (literally: said to) his father []
  2. (Diu) for (indicates subject of an infinitive)
    • 1883, Hugo Schuchardt, Kreolische Studien, volume 3:
      Trasê tamêm um vaquinh bem gord e matá par nós comê e par nós regalá:
      Bring also a small and very fat cow and kill (it) for us to eat and for us to regale ourselves:

Istriot

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Etymology

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From Latin per.

Preposition

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par

  1. for
  2. through

Jamaican Creole

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Etymology

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Clipping of partner.

Verb

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par

  1. To associate, to chill, to hang.
    • 2002 November 12, “Get Busy” (track 5), in Dutty Rock[6], performed by Sean Paul:
      Yo, sexy ladies waan par wid us. Inna di car wid us, dem nah war wid us
      Yo, sexy ladies want to chill with us. In the car with us, they don't war with us.
    • 2007 January 1, “The Traffic Jam” (track 5), in Mind Control[7], performed by Stephen Marley, Damian Marley, and Julian Marley:
      DAMIAN MARLEY:Cause him too par with we, we here when Demus show love
      Because he also associated with us, we were here when Chaka Demus showed love.
    • 2009 June 16, “No Cocaine” (track 2), in Escape From Babylon[8], performed by Alborosie:
      Mi na go par with T.Montana neither Pablo Escobar
      I'm not going to hang out with Tony Montana or Pablo Escobar.

Kaqchikel

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Etymology

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From Proto-Mayan *pahay.

Noun

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par

  1. skunk

References

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  • Brown, R. McKenna, Maxwell, Judith M., Little, Walter E. (2006) ¿La ütz awäch? Introduction to Kaqchikel Maya Language, Austin: University of Texas Press, page 237
  • Ruyán Canú, Déborah, Coyote Tum, Rafael, Munson L., Jo Ann (1991) Diccionario cakchiquel central y español[9] (in Spanish), Instituto Lingüístico de Verano de Centroamérica, page 180

Latin

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Etymology

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Unclear. A traditional reconstruction is Proto-Indo-European *per(h₂)- (to exchange), comparing Ancient Greek πέρνημι (pérnēmi) etc. and Lithuanian pirkti; but this accounts badly for the /a(ː)/. De Vaan suggests *peh₂s- (to watch (over), see?), linking Latin pāreō.[1] All possibilities nonetheless suffer semantic problems. Others refrain from assigning an Indo-European root.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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pār (genitive paris, comparative parior, superlative parissimus, adverb pariter); third-declension one-termination adjective

  1. even (of a number)
  2. equal
    Synonyms: aequus, aequālis, compār, adaequātus
    Antonyms: dispār, inaequālis, impār, inīquus
  3. like
  4. suitable

Declension

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Third-declension one-termination adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
Nominative pār parēs paria
Genitive paris parium
Dative parī paribus
Accusative parem pār parēs paria
Ablative parī paribus
Vocative pār parēs paria

Noun

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pār m or f (genitive paris); third declension

  1. companion, comrade, mate, spouse

Declension

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Third-declension noun (i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative pār parēs
Genitive paris parium
Dative parī paribus
Accusative parem parēs
parīs
Ablative pare paribus
Vocative pār parēs

Noun

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pār n (genitive paris); third declension

  1. pair, couple

Declension

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Third-declension noun (neuter, “pure” i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative pār paria
Genitive paris parium
Dative parī paribus
Accusative pār paria
Ablative parī paribus
Vocative pār paria

Derived terms

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Descendants

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See also

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References

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  • par”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • par”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 444

Latvian

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Preposition

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par (with accusative)

  1. about, on
  2. than
  3. for (price)
  4. as

Maltese

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Sicilian paru.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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par m (plural pari)

  1. couple, pair

Derived terms

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Middle French

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Etymology

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From Old French par.

Conjunction

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par

  1. by (introduces an agent)
    • 1532, François Rabelais, Pantagruel:
      Comment Epistemon qui avoit la teste tranchée, fut guery habillement par Panurge.
      How Epistemon who had his head cut off was adroitly cured by Panurge

Descendants

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Northern Kurdish

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Etymology

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From *p- + *ar-, cognate with Avestan 𐬫𐬁𐬭𐬆- (yārə-, year), English year, all from Proto-Indo-European *yeh₁r- (year).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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par f

  1. share, part

Noun

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par f

  1. last year

Adverb

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par

  1. last year

Norwegian Bokmål

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Noun

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par n (definite singular paret, indefinite plural par, definite plural para or parene)

  1. a pair
    et par skoa pair of shoes
  2. a couple
  3. a few (determiner)
    for et par dager sidena few days ago

Derived terms

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Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

Noun

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par n

  1. (golf, uncountable) par
    ett slag under parone stroke under par

Norwegian Nynorsk

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /paːr/, [pʰɐ̞ːr]

Etymology 1

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From Old Norse par, from Middle Low German par, from Latin paria (equals), neuter plural of pār. Akin to English pair.

Noun

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par n (definite singular paret, indefinite plural par, definite plural para)

  1. a pair
    eit par skoa pair of shoes
  2. a couple
  3. a few (determiner)
    for eit par dagar sidana few days ago
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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From English par.

Noun

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par n

  1. (golf, uncountable) [[]]par
    eitt slag under parone stroke under par

References

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Old French

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Etymology

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From Latin per.

Conjunction

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par

  1. by; via (introduces a medium)
  2. because of; due to (introduces a medium)
  3. by
  4. by; through; across
  5. by (introduces an exclamation)
  6. in (at a location)

Descendants

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Phalura

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

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Adverb

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par (Perso-Arabic spelling پر)

  1. suddenly

Alternative forms

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References

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  • Liljegren, Henrik, Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[10], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Polish

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /par/
  • Rhymes: -ar
  • Syllabification: par

Noun

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par

  1. genitive plural of para
  2. genitive plural of pary

Portuguese

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Etymology

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From Old Galician-Portuguese par, from Latin pār (equal, like), from Proto-Indo-European *per (exchange).

Pronunciation

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  • Rhymes: -aɾ
  • Hyphenation: par

Noun

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par m (plural pares)

  1. pair
  2. partner
  3. couple
  4. peer
  5. (golf) par

Derived terms

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Adjective

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par m or f (plural pares, not comparable)

  1. (mathematics) even
    Antonym: ímpar
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Romagnol

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Etymology

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Inherited from Latin per (by means of). Compare Italian per (for; to; through).

Preposition

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par

  1. for
  2. to

References

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  • Masotti, Adelmo (1996) Vocabolario Romagnolo Italiano [Romagnol-Italian dictionary] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, page 418

Romanian

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Etymology 1

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Inherited from Latin pālus (stake), from Proto-Italic *pākslos, from Proto-Indo-European *peh₂ǵ-slos, from *peh₂ǵ-.

Noun

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par m (plural pari)

  1. stake
  2. club, bat
Declension
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See also
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Etymology 2

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Borrowed from Latin par.

Adjective

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par m or n (feminine singular pară, masculine plural pari, feminine and neuter plural pare)

  1. (of an integer) even; divisible by two
    Antonym: impar
Declension
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Etymology 3

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Form of părea.

Verb

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par

  1. inflection of părea:
    1. first-person singular present indicative/subjunctive
    2. third-person plural present indicative

Sassarese

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Pronunciation

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Preposition

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par

  1. Alternative form of pa', sometimes used before vowel sounds
    • 1989, Giovanni Maria Cherchi, “Dipididda [Parting]”, in La poesia di l'althri [The poetry of others] (overall work in Italian and Sassarese), Sassari: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, page 15:
      [] O me’ ziddài, digussì bedda
      e àipra, eu t’aggiu di dagà par eddu
      O town of mine, so beautiful and harsh, I'll have to leave you for it [destiny]

References

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  • Rubattu, Antoninu (2006) Dizionario universale della lingua di Sardegna, 2nd edition, Sassari: Edes

Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from German Paar, from Latin par (equal, like).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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pȃr m (Cyrillic spelling па̑р)

  1. pair, couple
  2. (informal) few, handful, several

Declension

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Derived terms

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Slovene

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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pár m inan

  1. pair
  2. some, a couple (of)
  3. couple (two partners)
  4. (golf) par
  5. (card games) (poker) pair

Inflection

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The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Masculine inan., hard o-stem
nom. sing. pár
gen. sing. pára
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
pár pára pári
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
pára párov párov
dative
(dajȃlnik)
páru pároma párom
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
pár pára páre
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
páru párih párih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
párom pároma pári

Synonyms

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See also

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Poker hands in Slovene · poker karte (layout · text)
         
najvišja karta par dva para tris lestvica, kenta
         
barva full house poker barvna lestvica kraljeva lestvica

Further reading

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  • par”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Spanish

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Etymology

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Inherited from Latin pār (equal, like), from Proto-Indo-European *per (exchange).

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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par m or f (masculine and feminine plural pares)

  1. even (divisible by two)
    Antonym: impar

Derived terms

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Noun

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par m (plural pares)

  1. pair (two of the same or similar items that go together)
    un par de calcetines
    a pair of socks
  2. couple (two of the same or similar items)
    bebí un par de cervezas
    I drank a couple of beers
  3. (physics) two equal non-collinear forces; that is a force couple in Newtonian mechanics
  4. peer (somebody who is, or something that is, at a level equal)
  5. some, a few

Noun

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par f (plural pares)

  1. (finance) par (acceptable level)

Derived terms

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Further reading

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Swedish

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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par n

  1. a pair, a couple (either two or a few of something)
  2. a couple, two people who are dating

Declension

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Declension of par 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative par paret par paren
Genitive pars parets pars parens
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Anagrams

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Tagalog

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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par (Baybayin spelling ᜉᜇ᜔)

  1. (colloquial) Clipping of pare.

Tok Pisin

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Noun

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par

  1. stingray

Venetian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Latin pār. Compare Italian paio.

Noun

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par m (plural pari)

  1. pair

West Frisian

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

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par c (plural parren, diminutive parke)

  1. pear

Further reading

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  • par”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011