Translingual edit

Symbol edit

per

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-2/B language code for Persian.

English edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin per (through, during), from Proto-Indo-European *per. Doublet of par.

Preposition edit

per

  1. For each.
    Admission is £10 per person.
    miles per gallon
    beats per minute
    $2.50 per dozen
  2. To each, in each (used in expressing ratios of units).
    12 inches per foot
    100 centimeters per meter
  3. (medicine) By the, by means of the, via the, through the.
    Introduce the endoscope per nasum.
    The medication is to be administered per os.
  4. In accordance with, as per
    I parked my car at the curb per your request.
    Implement a program that computes the approximate grade level needed to comprehend some text, per the below.
    Note that while the walkthrough illustrates that words may be separated by more than one space, you may assume, per the specifications above, that no sentences will contain more than one space in a row.
Usage notes edit
  • In senses equivalent to "each", per is typically followed by a singular noun phrase with no determiner.
    Take one pill per day, not *Take one pill per a day.
  • The common exception is its use with plural noun phrases, although these are almost always limited to large round numbers such as 100, 1,000, 10,000...
    The abortion rate in the U.S. has dropped since 1980 from nearly 30 per 1,000 women of childbearing age to less than 20.
  • In medical senses, per is followed by the name of an orifice in Latin rather than English.
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit
Translations edit
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Etymology 2 edit

shortening of person, coined by Marge Piercy in Woman on the Edge of Time (1979)

Pronoun edit

per (third-person singular, gender-neutral, nominative case, accusative per, possessive adjective pers, possessive noun pers, reflexive perself)

  1. (rare, nonstandard) They (singular). Gender-neutral neologistic third-person singular subject pronoun, coordinate with gendered pronouns he and she.
    • 1997 April 22, Anthony and Joy Hilbert, “ASB: Info PDQ please re local group rules”, in alt.sex.bondage (Usenet):
      This is the same place the Houghtons came from? The place where someone we interacted with thought of going into law as a profession, decided per couldn't because per was a bdsmer, and most of the USAmerican bdsmers per was discussing it with agreed with per?
  2. (rare, nonstandard) Them (singular) Neologistic gender-neutral third-person singular object pronoun, suggested for use in place of him and her.
    • 1997 April 22, Anthony and Joy Hilbert, “ASB: Info PDQ please re local group rules”, in alt.sex.bondage (Usenet):
      This is the same place the Houghtons came from? The place where someone we interacted with thought of going into law as a profession, decided per couldn't because per was a bdsmer, and most of the USAmerican bdsmers per was discussing it with agreed with per?
    • 1998, Katherine Phelps, “Odysseus, She”, in Storytronics[1]:
      "Kalypso!" I call out as phe disappears on the horizon. I did not know it, but I loved per.
    • 2006 November 15, Richard Ekins, Dave King, The transgender phenomenon, Sage Publications, →ISBN, →LCCN, LCC HQ77.9.E55 2006, page 160:
      Whereas Christie had flirted with a lesbian identity prior to surgery, following surgery Christie found perself able to pursue per attraction to men, provided they related to per as a non-gendered person.
Synonyms edit
Hyponyms edit
Derived terms edit

Adjective edit

per (not comparable)

  1. (rare, nonstandard) Belonging to per, their (singular). Gender-neutral third-person singular possessive adjective, coordinate with gendered his and her.
    • 2006, Richard Ekins, Dave King, The transgender phenomenon, Sage Publications, →ISBN, →LCCN, LCC HQ77.9.E55 2006, page 160:
      Whereas Christie had flirted with a lesbian identity prior to surgery, following surgery Christie found perself able to pursue per attraction to men, provided they related to per as a non-gendered person.
Synonyms edit
Hyponyms edit
Derived terms edit

See also edit

Anagrams edit

Aromanian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin pilus. Compare Romanian păr.

Noun edit

per m (plural peri)

  1. hair
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin pirus. Compare Romanian păr.

Noun edit

per m (plural peri)

  1. pear tree
Related terms edit

Asturian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin per.

Preposition edit

per

  1. by means of, by way of, by
  2. for
    per trés díes
    for three days
  3. through

Derived terms edit

Breton edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Breton per, from Proto-Brythonic *per, a borrowing from Latin pira, plural of pirum. Cognate with Cornish per, Welsh pêr.

Noun edit

per f (singulative perenn)

  1. pears
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Celtic *kʷaryos. Compare Cornish per, Welsh pair.

Noun edit

per m (plural perioù)

  1. cauldron
Related terms edit

Catalan edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Catalan per, from Latin per, appropriating the senses of Latin prō as well.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per

  1. through, via: used in indicating the medium through which passage occurs
  2. at, during, in: used in indicating the time at which an event occurs
  3. during, for: used in indicating the duration of time for which an event occurs
  4. because, because of: used in indicating the reason an action was undertaken
  5. (when followed by a verbal noun) used in indicating the activity one intends to do because of an action
    El meu germà anirà a Tahití per vacar a la platja.
    My brother will go to Tahiti (in order) to vacation on the beach.
  6. by: used in indicating the agent responsible for an action
  7. for each; for every
  8. a, for, per: used in indicating a rate of exchange

Usage notes edit

  • When the preposition per is followed by a masculine definite article, el sg or els pl, it is contracted with it to the forms pel sg or pels pl respectively. If el would be elided to the form l’ because it is before a word beginning with a vowel, the elision to per l’ takes precedence over contracting to pel.

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Cimbrian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle High German bër, from Old High German bero, from Proto-West Germanic *berō, from Proto-Germanic *berô (bear). Cognate with German Bär, English bear.

Noun edit

per m

  1. (Luserna) bear

References edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle High German ber, from Old High German beri, from Proto-West Germanic *baʀi, from Proto-Germanic *bazją (berry). Cognate with German Beere, English berry.

Noun edit

per n (plural pern)

  1. (Luserna) berry
Derived terms edit

References edit

Cornish edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Cornish per, from Proto-Brythonic *per, a borrowing from Latin pira, plural of pirum. Cognate with Breton per, Welsh pêr.

Noun edit

per f (singulative peren)

  1. pears

Czech edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Noun edit

per

  1. genitive plural of pero

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

per

  1. second-person singular imperative of prát

Danish edit

Preposition edit

per (abbreviated pr.)

  1. For each; for every
    Motoren roterer 1000 gange per minut.
    The engine rotates 1000 times per minute.

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per

  1. For each; for every; per
    De motor draait 1000 toeren per minuut.
    The engine goes 1000 revolutions per minute.
  2. by means of
    Kom je per auto of per spoor?
    Are you coming by car or by rail?

Derived terms edit

Anagrams edit

Esperanto edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin per.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per

  1. by means of, with
    Li skribis per plumo.He wrote with a pen.

See also edit

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From Latin per.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈper/, [ˈpe̞r]
  • Rhymes: -er
  • Syllabification(key): per

Preposition edit

per (+ nominative)

  1. per (for each, to each)
    Synonyms: kohden, kohti, (ablative case) -lta
    viisi euroa per metrifive euros per metre
  2. (business, accounting) per (indicating date, due date, date of maturity, etc.)
    Laskumme 1 000 e per 15.6.Our invoice for Eur 1,000 due on 15 June
    Tilin saldo per 31.12.Account balance on 31 December

Further reading edit

German edit

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per (+ accusative or dative)

  1. per, via, by, in acccordance with
    per Gesetzaccording to the law

Usage notes edit

  • per is followed by a noun in either the accusative or dative case. No semantic distinction is made between the cases here. Examples from Duden: per ersten / erstem Januar, "as of the first of January"; per eingeschriebenen / eingeschriebenem Brief, "by registered letter".

References edit

  • per” in Duden online
  • per” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Back-formation from perel.[1]

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

per (plural perek)

  1. (law) action, suit, lawsuit
    Synonyms: eljárás, kereset
Declension edit
Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative per perek
accusative pert pereket
dative pernek pereknek
instrumental perrel perekkel
causal-final perért perekért
translative perré perekké
terminative perig perekig
essive-formal perként perekként
essive-modal
inessive perben perekben
superessive peren pereken
adessive pernél pereknél
illative perbe perekbe
sublative perre perekre
allative perhez perekhez
elative perből perekből
delative perről perekről
ablative pertől perektől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
peré pereké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
peréi perekéi
Possessive forms of per
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. perem pereim
2nd person sing. pered pereid
3rd person sing. pere perei
1st person plural perünk pereink
2nd person plural peretek pereitek
3rd person plural perük pereik
Derived terms edit
Compound words
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin per (through).[2]

Adverb edit

per

  1. per
    kilométer per órakilometers per hour
  2. (mathematics) divided by
    3/5, három per öt3:5, three divided by five
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ per in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (‘Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)
  2. ^ Tótfalusi, István. Idegenszó-tár: Idegen szavak értelmező és etimológiai szótára (’A Storehouse of Foreign Words: an explanatory and etymological dictionary of foreign words’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2005. →ISBN

Further reading edit

  • (action, lawsuit): per in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (per, divided by): per in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Ido edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Esperanto perEnglish perFrench parItalian perSpanish por, ultimately from Latin per, from Proto-Indo-European *per.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per

  1. by means of, by, with (some means)
    Ilu batis me per bastono.He beat me with a stick.
  2. (mathematics) multiplied by, times
    Quar per kin esas duadek.Four times five is twenty.
    Un per un esas un.One times one is one.

Derived terms edit

  • per ke (through the fact that)

See also edit

  • da (by)
  • kun (with (in company with))

Indonesian edit

 
Indonesian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia id

Alternative forms edit

  • pir (nonstandard)

Etymology 1 edit

From Dutch veer (feather, spring), a contraction of veder, from Middle Dutch vedere, from Old Dutch fethara, from Proto-Germanic *feþrō, from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly). The sense "spring" is derived from the ability of feathers to resume their shape when bent.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈpɛr]
  • Hyphenation: pèr

Noun edit

pèr (first-person possessive perku, second-person possessive permu, third-person possessive pernya)

  1. spring, a mechanical device made of flexible or coiled material that exerts force and attempts to spring back when bent, compressed, or stretched.
    Synonym: pegas
  2. (colloquial) arc lamp.
    Synonyms: bohlam, bola lampu listrik, lampu busur
Derived terms edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Dutch per, from Latin per (through, during), from Proto-Indo-European *per.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈpər]
  • Hyphenation: pêr

Preposition edit

pêr

  1. per,
    1. for each.
      Synonym: tiap
    2. to each, in each (used in expressing ratios of units).
      Synonyms: bagi, demi
    3. by the, by means of the, via the, through the.
      Synonym: dengan
  2. since
    Synonyms: mulai, sejak

Further reading edit

Interlingua edit

Etymology edit

From Latin per, which is the predecessor of French par, Italian per, Spanish par and Spanish pro.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per

  1. through, during, throughout
    Io evadeva per un tunnel secrete.
    I escaped through a secret tunnel.
    Per uso pote formar vapor inflammabile.
    May form flammable fumes during usage.
  2. by (the agency of), through, by means of
    Su via a successo era per opera dur.
    His/her path to success was through hard work.
  3. per, for each
    Admission costa 10 € per persona.
    Admission costs €10 per person.

Italian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin per.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per

  1. for
    Ma io l'ho fatto per te!But I did it for you!
    Te lo vendo per appena trecento euroI'll sell it you for only three hundred euro
    Ho studiato per tre oreI studied for three hours
    Questo è il treno per LondraThis is the train for London
  2. to (indicates direction)
  3. through
    Sono passato per il centroI passed through the center
  4. in or on
    Camminava ansiosamente per la stanzaHe was pacing anxiously about the room
  5. by
    Te lo invio per postaI'll send it to you by post
  6. with
  7. as

Usage notes edit

  • When followed by the definite article, per can be combined with the article to give the following combined forms (old-fashioned, very rarely used, except for pel, pei):
per + article Combined form per + article Combined form
per + il pel per + i pei
per + l' pell'
per + lo pello per + gli pegli
per + la pella per + le pelle

Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Angelo Prati, "Vocabolario Etimologico Italiano", Torino, 1951

Anagrams edit

Ladin edit

Etymology edit

From Latin per.

Preposition edit

per

  1. for
  2. through
  3. in or on
  4. by
  5. with
  6. as

Latin edit

Alternative forms edit

  • (Mediaeval sigil)

Etymology edit

From Proto-Italic *per, from Proto-Indo-European *per-. Cognates include Ancient Greek περί (perí), Sanskrit परि (pári), Lithuanian per, Albanian për and English for.

The accusative is from the pre-PIE directional.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per (+ accusative)

  1. through, by means of
  2. throughout, during

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Eastern Romance:
    • Aromanian: pri, pi, pre
    • Romanian: pre, pe, , pi
  • Istriot: par
  • Italo-Romance:
  • Franco-Provençal: per
  • Old Leonese:
  • Old Occitan:
  • Old French: par
  • Old Galician-Portuguese: per
    • Portuguese: per
  • Old Spanish:
  • Rhaeto-Romance:
  • Venetian: par
  • Danish: per
  • Dutch: per
  • English: per
  • Finnish: per
  • German: per
  • Hungarian: per
  • Norwegian: per
  • Swedish: per

References edit

  • per”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • per”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[3], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to bring a stream of water through the garden: aquam ducere per hortum
    • to cut one's way (through the enemies' ranks): ferro viam facere (per confertos hostes)
    • to spread over the whole body: per totum corpus diffundi
    • to pass a thing from hand to hand: de manu in manus or per manus tradere aliquid
    • in a dream: per somnum, in somnis
    • in a dream: per quietem, in quiete
    • under the pretext, pretence of..: per causam (with Gen.)
    • when occasion offers; as opportunity occurs: per occasionem
    • a report is spreading imperceptibly: fama serpit (per urbem)
    • to be in every one's mouth: per omnium ora ferri
    • to pass one's life in luxury and idleness: per luxum et ignaviam aetatem agere
    • to take a false step: per errorem labi, or simply labi
    • I said it in jest: haec iocatus sum, per iocum dixi
    • to correspond with some one: colloqui cum aliquo per litteras
    • apparently; to look at: per speciem (alicuius rei)
    • under pretext, pretence of..: per simulationem, simulatione alicuius rei
    • by craft: per dolum (B. G. 4. 13)
    • in sport, mockery: per ludibrium
    • men exempt from service owing to age: qui per aetatem arma ferre non possunt or aetate ad bellum inutiles
    • to transfix, pierce a man's breast with one's sword: gladio aliquem per pectus transfigere (Liv. 2. 46)
    • to force a way, a passage: iter tentare per vim (cf. sect. II. 3)
    • to break through the enemy's centre: per medios hostes (mediam hostium aciem) perrumpere
    • to lead some one in triumph: per triumphum (in triumpho) aliquem ducere
    • that is self-evident, goes without saying: hoc per se intellegitur
    • I have no objection: per me licet
  • per in Ramminger, Johann (2016 July 16 (last accessed)) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[4], pre-publication website, 2005-2016

Latvian edit

Verb edit

per

  1. inflection of pērt:
    1. second/third-person singular present indicative
    2. third-person plural present indicative
    3. second-person singular imperative
  2. (with the particle lai) third-person singular imperative of pērt
  3. (with the particle lai) third-person plural imperative of pērt

Lithuanian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Indo-European *peri. Cognates include Ancient Greek περί (perí), Sanskrit परि (pári), Latin per and English for.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per (with accusative)

  1. through
  2. during

Megleno-Romanian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin pilus. Compare Aromanian per, Romanian păr.

Noun edit

per m

  1. hair

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old English pere, peru.

Noun edit

per

  1. Alternative form of pere (pear)

Etymology 2 edit

From Medieval Latin pera.

Noun edit

per

  1. Alternative form of pere (bridge pillar)

Etymology 3 edit

From Old French per.

Noun edit

per

  1. Alternative form of pere (peer)

Adjective edit

per

  1. Alternative form of pere (equal)

Mòcheno edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle High German bër, from Old High German bero, from Proto-West Germanic *berō, from Proto-Germanic *berô (bear). Cognate with German Bär, English bear.

Noun edit

per m

  1. bear

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle High German ber, from Old High German beri, from Proto-West Germanic *baʀi, from Proto-Germanic *bazją (berry). Cognate with German Beere, English berry.

Noun edit

per n

  1. berry
Derived terms edit

References edit

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin per (related to native for).

Preposition edit

per (abbreviated pr.)

  1. For each, for every, per.
    Motoren roterer 1000 ganger per minutt.The engine rotates 1000 times per minute.
    per porsjonfor each portion
    per dagper day

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin per (related to native for).

Preposition edit

per (abbreviated pr.)

  1. For each, for every, per.
    per porsjonfor each portion
    per dagper day

Derived terms edit

References edit

Polish edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin per, from Proto-Italic *per, from Proto-Indo-European *per-.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per

  1. (literary) forms adverbs from nouns [+nominative]
    Synonym: na

Further reading edit

  • per in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • per in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romani edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Old Armenian փոր (pʿor, belly, abdomen). Doublet of pori.

Noun edit

per f (plural pera)

  1. (anatomy) abdomen, belly

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1971–1979) “փոր”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Armenian Etymological Dictionary] (in Armenian), 2nd edition, a reprint of the original 1926–1935 seven-volume edition, Yerevan: University Press
  • Paspati, Alexandre G. (1870) “per”, in Études sur les Tchinghianés; ou, Bohémiens de l'Empire ottoman (in French), Constantinople: Impr. A. Koroméla, page 422

Sardinian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin per.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per

  1. per, by, through

Swedish edit

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

per

  1. For each; for every
    Motorn roterar 1000 varv per minut.
    The engine goes 1000 revolutions per minute.

Anagrams edit

Volapük edit

Noun edit

per (nominative plural pers)

  1. loss

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Zazaki edit

Noun edit

per

  1. page