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э́то (éto)

  1. demonstrative pronoun: this, it, that
    Мне э́то нра́вится!Mne éto nrávitsja!I like it! or I like that!
  2. neuter form of этот: this; compare этот/эта/эти and тот/то/та/те
    Э́то яйцо́ — све́жее, а вот э́то — ту́хлое.Éto jajcó — svéžeje, a vot éto — túxloje.This egg is fresh, and this one is rotten.


э́то (éto)

  1. Used as subject: it (is), this (is), that (is), these (are), those (are).
    Э́тоучи́тельÉto — učítelʹThis is the teacher.
    Э́тобрат и сестра́Éto — brat i sestráThey are brother and sister.
    Э́то не молоко́, а кефи́рÉto ne molokó, a kefírThis is not milk, but kefir.

Usage notesEdit

  • Used to connect subject and predicate as kind of topic or subject marker. (However, as opposed to actual topic markers such as () in Japanese, ‘это’ may be omitted without changing the meaning or breaking the sentence structure.) It does not get translated into English.
  • Со́евое молоко́ — (э́то) напи́ток, полу́ченный из зёрен со́иSoy milk is a beverage produced from soybeans.
  • Note that all of the above examples are ellipses in which the actual verb (есть (jestʹ) — is, суть (sutʹ) — are) has been omitted, which is typical for Russian. Oftentimes, the omitted verb is replaced by an em dash.


э́то (éto)

  1. uh, er, erm, umm; used in hesitant speech
    Я, э́то, не купи́л ничего́Ja, éto, ne kupíl ničevóI, er, I haven't bought anything.