э́то • (éto) (demonstrative)
- nominative neuter singular of : this, it, that
- Э́то — учи́тель ― Éto — učítelʹ ― This is the teacher.
- accusative neuter singular of : this, it, that
- One of the uses of this form is to connect subject and predicate as kind of topic or subject marker. (However, as opposed to actual topic markers such as は (wa) in Japanese, ‘это’ may be omitted without changing the meaning or breaking the sentence structure.) It does not get translated into English.
- Note that all of the above examples are ellipses in which the actual verb (есть (jestʹ) — is, суть (sutʹ) — are) has been omitted, which is typical for Russian. Oftentimes, the omitted verb is replaced by an em dash.
э́то • (éto)
- вот э́то (vot éto, “this here, this over here/there”, pronoun/particle)
- вот э́то да́ (vot éto dá, “wow”, interjection)
- при э́том (pri étom, “in the process, in doing so; on top of that, withal, for good measure”, adverb)
- по́сле это́го (pósle etóvo, “afterwards, thereafter”, adverb)
- в э́то вре́мя (v éto vrémja, “at the time, at that time; meanwhile, in the mean time”, adverb)