See also: علي, علی, غلى, and غلي

Arabic edit

Root
ع ل ي (ʕ-l-y)

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Semitic *ʕalay- (on, over). Cognate with Akkadian 𒌋𒅗 (eli), Hebrew עַל ('al), עֲלֵי ('aléi), Aramaic עַל (ʿal).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

عَلَى (ʕalā)

  1. on, over
  2. against
    يَوْمٌ لَكَ وَيَوْمٌ عَلَيْكَ
    yawmun laka wayawmun ʕalayka
    one day for you, and one day against you
    سَجَّلَ ٱللَّاعِبُ خَمْسَةَ أَهْدَافٍ عَلَى خَصْمِهِ
    sajjala l-lāʕibu ḵamsata ʔahdāfin ʕalā ḵaṣmihi
    The player scored five goals against his opponent.
  3. expresses obligation
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 24:54:
      وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ
      wamā ʕalā r-rasūli ʔillā l-balāḡu l-mubīnu
      And the Messenger's only duty is to deliver messages clearly
  4. despite
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 13:6:
      وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغْفِرَةٍ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى ظُلْمِهِمْ
      wa-ʔinna rabbaka laḏū maḡfiratin li-n-nāsi ʕalā ẓulmihim
      And indeed, your Lord is full of forgiveness for the people despite their wrongdoing
  5. on condition, provided
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 28:27:
      قَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُنْكِحَكَ إِحْدَى ٱبْنَتَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ عَلَى أَن تَأْجُرَنِي ثَمَانِيَ حِجَجٍ
      qāla ʔinnī ʔurīdu ʔan ʔunkiḥaka ʔiḥdā bnatayya hātayni ʕalā ʔan taʔjuranī ṯamāniya ḥijajin
      He said, "Indeed, I wish to wed you one of these, my two daughters, on the condition that you serve me for eight years,"
Inflection edit
    Inflected forms
Base form عَلَى (ʕalā)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person عَلَيَّ (ʕalayya) عَلَيْنَا (ʕalaynā)
Second person عَلَيْكَ (ʕalayka) عَلَيْكِ (ʕalayki) عَلَيْكُمَا (ʕalaykumā) عَلَيْكُمْ (ʕalaykum) عَلَيْكُنَّ (ʕalaykunna)
Third person عَلَيْهِ (ʕalayhi) عَلَيْهَا (ʕalayhā) عَلَيْهِمَا (ʕalayhimā) عَلَيْهِمْ (ʕalayhim) عَلَيْهِنَّ (ʕalayhinna)
Antonyms edit
  • (antonym(s) of "against"): لِـ (li-)
Related terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Maltese: għal

(via third-person singular masculine form عَلَيْهِ (ʕalayhi)):

Etymology 2 edit

Morphologically from the root ع ل ي (ʕ-l-y).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

عَلَى (ʕalā) I, non-past يَعْلِي‎ (yaʕlī)

  1. (transitive) to climb.
Conjugation edit

Etymology 3 edit

Morphologically from the root ع ل ي (ʕ-l-y).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

عُلًى (ʕulanf pl

  1. feminine plural of أَعْلَى (ʔaʕlā)

References edit

  • Freytag, Georg (1835) “على”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum[1] (in Latin), volume 3, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, pages 215–216
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860) “على”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc[2] (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, pages 352–356
  • Wehr, Hans (1979) “على”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN, pages 746–750

Egyptian Arabic edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Arabic عَلَى (ʕalā).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

على (ʕala)

  1. on, upon

Inflection edit

Inflected forms of على
Base form على (ʕala)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person علي (ʕalayya) علينا (ʕalēna)
2nd person عليك (ʕalēk) عليك (ʕalēki) عليكوا (ʕalēku)
3rd person عليه (ʕalēh) عليها (ʕalēha) عليهم (ʕalēhum)

Hijazi Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Arabic عَلَى (ʕalā).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

على (ʕala)

  1. on, over
    Synonym: عَـ (ʕa, on, over)
    حتلاقيه على الرف/عالرف
    ḥatlāgī ʕala al-raff/ʕal-raff
    You will find it on rack
  2. against
    يوم ليك و يوم عليك
    yōm līk u yōm ʕalēk
    one day for you, and one day against you
  3. despite

Inflection edit

Inflected forms of على
Base form على (ʕala)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person عَلَيّ (ʕalayya) علينا (ʕalēna)
2nd person عليك (ʕalēk) عليكي (ʕalēki) عليكم (ʕalēkum)
3rd person عليه (ʕalē) عليها (ʕalēha) عليهم (ʕalēhum)

Moroccan Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Arabic عَلَى (ʕalā).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

على (ʕla)

  1. on; upon; onto
  2. against
  3. expresses obligation

Inflection edit

Inflected forms of على
Base form على (ʕla)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person علي (ʕliyya) علينا (ʕlīna)
2nd person عليك (ʕlīk) عليك (ʕlīki) عليكم (ʕlīkum)
3rd person عليه (ʕlīh) عليها (ʕlīha) عليهم (ʕlīhum)

North Levantine Arabic edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Arabic عَلَى (ʕalā).

Preposition edit

على (ʕala)

  1. on; upon; onto
  2. (by extension) with a hint of
  3. about (a topic)
  4. to (a place)
    عم نسافر ع بيروت
    ʕam nsāfir ʕa bayrūt
    We’re travelling to Beirut.
  5. Used with an adjective given the definite article, marking it as an adverb

Usage notes edit

  • The personal forms are built from the stem ʕlay- or ʕalay- as in عليكن (ʕ(a)laykun, on you).
  • Sense 2 is construed as "A على B"; literally, "A on B". A is the dominant element in such a construction, not B, even though this seems to conflict with a literal reading:
    1. بوظا على جوز
      būẓa ʕala jōz
      walnut-flavored ice cream, or ice cream with walnuts
      (literally, “ice cream on walnuts”)
    2. جوز على بوظا
      jōz ʕala būẓa
      ice-cream-flavored walnuts
      (literally, “walnuts on ice cream”)

South Levantine Arabic edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabic عَلَى (ʕalā).

Alternative forms edit

  • Shortened form: عـ (ʕa-)

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ʕa.la/, [ˈʕa.la]
  • (file)

Preposition edit

على (ʕala)

  1. to, toward
    Antonym: من (min)
    الختيار راح عالمستشفى.
    il-ḵityār rāḥ ʕal-mustašfa
    The old man went to the hospital.
    إمّي دخلت عالبيت.
    ʔimmi daḵlat ʕal-bēt
    My mother went into the house.
    (literally, “My mother entered to the house.”)
    قدّيش دفعت عليه؟
    ʔaddēš dafaʕt ʕalēh
    How much did you pay for it?
    (literally, “How much did you pay toward it?”)
  2. (location) on, onto, over
    Synonym: فوق (fōʔ, above)
    حطّه عالطاولة.
    ḥoṭṭo ʕaṭ-ṭāwle
    Put it on the table.
  3. (time) at, on
    خلّينا نلتقي على ساعة ستّة.
    ḵallīna niltʔi ʕala sāʕa sitte
    Let's meet at six o'clock.
  4. (auxiliary) must, should
    Synonym: لازم (lāzem)
    قرّرنا نعمل اللي علينا ونتّكل على ربّنا.
    ʔarrarna niʕmil illi ʕalēna w nittakil ʕala rabbna
    We resolved to do what we must and trust in God.
    إلي عليك ألف شيكل.
    ʔili ʕalēk ʔalf šēkel
    You owe me one thousand shekels.
    (literally, “You must to me one thousand shekels.”)
Inflection edit
    Inflected forms of على
Base form على (ʕala)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person عليّ (ʕalayy) علينا (ʕalēna)
2nd person عليك (ʕalēk) عليك (ʕalēki) عليكم (ʕalēkom)
3rd person عليه (ʕalē) عليها (ʕalēha) عليهم (ʕalēhom)

Etymology 2 edit

Root
ع ل ي
4 terms

From Arabic عَلَّى (ʕallā).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ʕal.la/, [ˈʕal.la]
  • (file)

Verb edit

علّى (ʕalla) II (present بعلّي (biʕalli))

  1. to raise (the volume, one's voice, etc.)
    Antonym: وطّى (waṭṭa)
Conjugation edit
    Conjugation of علّى (ʕalla)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m علّيت (ʕallēt) علّيت (ʕallēt) علّى (ʕalla) علّينا (ʕallēna) علّيتو (ʕallētu) علّو (ʕallu)
f علّيتي (ʕallēti) علّت (ʕallat)
present m بعلّي (baʕalli) بتعلّي (bitʕalli) بعلّي (biʕalli) منعلّي (minʕalli) بتعلّو (bitʕallu) بعلّو (biʕallu)
f بتعلّي (bitʕalli) بتعلّي (bitʕalli)
subjunctive m اعلّي (aʕalli) تعلّي (tʕalli) يعلّي (yʕalli) نعلّي (nʕalli) تعلّو (tʕallu) يعلّو (yʕallu)
f تعلّي (tʕalli) تعلّي (tʕalli)
imperative m علّي (ʕalli) علّو (ʕallu)
f علّي (ʕalli)