Etymology 1Edit

Possibly cognate with Proto-Semitic *ʔal-; compare Arabic عَلَى(ʿalā, on, over), Hebrew עַל(ʿal, on), Aramaic עַל(ʿal, on). If so, perhaps from a form such as Proto-Afroasiatic *x̣al.[1] However, some authors consider such a correspondence irregular.[2]






  1. face
  2. surface
Derived termsEdit


  1. upon, (vertically) on
  2. (of a place) at, in
  3. and, in addition to
  4. per, for each
  5. originating from
  6. because of, for the sake of
  7. by means of, using
  8. (with following infinitive) forms the periphrastic imperfective of a verb
  9. (contracted from ḥr ḏd) saying; introduces a direct quotation
Usage notesEdit

Conjunction is usually expressed by directly juxtaposing two nouns, but occasionally ḥnꜥ or ḥr are used to link the nouns instead.

Alternative formsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Formed from a stem ḥaru- + the Proto-Afroasiatic nominative case marker *-u; in Egyptian, Proto-Afroasiatic case markers were generally lost, but *-u became a glide -w instead when the stem ended in a vowel.[1] The stem is probably related either to the preposition ḥr (above), with the theonym thus meaning ‘the One Above’, or to the verb ḥrj (to be distant), with the theonym meaning ‘the Distant One’, or to both.


  • (reconstructed) IPA(key): /ˈħaːɾuw//ˈħaːɾuw//ˈħaːɾəʔ//ˈħoːɾ(ə)/

Proper nounEdit



  1. Horus, the falcon-headed Egyptian god of the sky, war, and kingship
  2. a conventional element of the serekh name of most pharaohs
Alternative formsEdit
Derived termsEdit
  • Coptic: ϩⲱⲣ (hōr)
  • Ancient Greek: Ὧρος (Hôros)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 32, 38, 55–56
  2. ^ Rubin, Aaron D. (2004) “An Outline of Comparative Egypto-Semitic Morphology” in Egyptian and Semito-Hamitic (Afro-Asiatic) studies: in memoriam W. Vycichl, page 483
  3. ^ Schenkel, Wolfgang (1990) Einführung in die altägyptische Sprachwissenschaft, pages 61, 70, 88