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Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Afro-Asiatic *x̣al. Cognate with Proto-Semitic *ʿal-; compare Arabic عَلَى (ʿalā, on, over), Hebrew עַל (ʿal, on), Aramaic עַל (ʿal, on).[1]






  1. face
  2. surface
Derived termsEdit


  1. upon, (vertically) on
  2. (of a place) at, in
  3. and, in addition to
  4. per, for each
  5. originating from
  6. because of, for the sake of
  7. (with following infinitive) forms the periphrastic imperfective of a verb
  8. (contracted from ḥr ḏd) saying; introduces a direct quotation
Usage notesEdit

Conjunction is usually expressed by directly juxtaposing two nouns, but occasionally ḥnꜥ or ḥr are used to link the nouns instead.

Alternative formsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Formed from a stem ḥaru- + the Proto-Afro-Asiatic nominative case marker *-u; in Egyptian, Proto-Afro-Asiatic case markers were generally lost, but *-u became a glide -w instead when the stem ended in a vowel.[1] The stem is probably related either to the preposition ḥr (above), with the theonym thus meaning ‘the One Above’, or to the verb ḥrj (to be distant), with the theonym meaning ‘the Distant One’, or to both.



Proper nounEdit



  1. Horus, the falcon-headed Egyptian god of the sky, war, and kingship
  2. a conventional element of the serekh name of most pharaohs
Alternative formsEdit
Derived termsEdit


  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, pages 88, 148, 179–182, 240
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 32, 38, 55–56