See also: ûnder and under-

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English under, from Old English under, from Proto-Germanic *under (whence also German unter, Dutch onder, Danish and Norwegian under), from a merger of Proto-Indo-European *n̥dʰér (under) and *n̥tér (inside). Akin to Old High German untar (under), Sanskrit अन्तर् (antar, within), Latin infrā (below, beneath) and inter (between, among).

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

 
under (1)

under

  1. In or at a lower level than, so as to be covered or surmounted by.
    We found some shade under a tree.
    About £10,000 was stuffed under the mattress.
    There is nothing new under the sun.
    • 1922, Virginia Woolf, Jacob's Room Chapter 1
      The little boys in the front bedroom had thrown off their blankets and lay under the sheets.
    • 1963, Margery Allingham, chapter 14, in The China Governess[2]:
      Nanny Broome was looking up at the outer wall.  Just under the ceiling there were three lunette windows, heavily barred and blacked out in the normal way by centuries of grime.
    • 2013 June 29, “High and wet”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8842, page 28:
      Floods in northern India, mostly in the small state of Uttarakhand, have wrought disaster on an enormous scale. [] Rock-filled torrents smashed vehicles and homes, burying victims under rubble and sludge.
    1. Below the surface of.
      The crocodile lurked just under the water.
  2. From one side of to the other, passing beneath.
    I crawled under the fence.
    There is a tunnel under the English Channel.
  3. Less than.
    Interest rates are now under 1%.
    We can get there in under an hour.
  4. Subordinate to; subject to the control of.
    He served in World War II under General Omar Bradley.
    During the pandemic, we had to live under severe restrictions.
    • 2012 May 5, Phil McNulty, “Chelsea 2-1 Liverpool”, in BBC Sport[3]:
      He was then denied by a magnificent tackle from captain Terry as Liverpool continued to press - but Chelsea survived as the memories of the nightmare under Villas-Boas faded even further into the background.
    • 2011 December 14, Angelique Chrisafis, “Rachida Dati accuses French PM of sexism and elitism”, in Guardian[4]:
      Dati launched a blistering attack on the prime minister, François Fillon, under whom she served as justice minister, accusing him of sexism, elitism, arrogance and hindering the political advancement of ethnic minorities.
  5. Within the category, classification or heading of.
    File this under "i" for "ignore".
  6. (figuratively) In the face of; in response to (some attacking force).
    • 2011, Tom Fordyce, Rugby World Cup 2011: England 12-19 France [5]
      England's World Cup dreams fell apart under a French onslaught on a night when their shortcomings were brutally exposed at the quarter-final stage.
    to collapse under stress; to give in under interrogation
  7. Using or adopting (a name, identity, etc.).
    • 2013, The Huffington Post, JK Rowling Pseudonym: Robert Galbraith's 'The Cuckoo's Calling' Is Actually By Harry Potter Author [6]
      J.K. Rowling has written a crime novel called 'The Cuckoo's Calling' under the pseudonym Robert Galbraith.
    He writes books under the name John Smith.
    She now lives under a new identity.

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

AdverbEdit

under (not comparable)

  1. In or to a lower or subordinate position, or a position beneath or below something, physically or figuratively.
    pulled under by the currents
    weighed under by worry
  2. So as to pass beneath something.
    There's quite a gap, so you may be able to sneak under.
  3. (usually in compounds) Insufficiently.
    The plants were underwatered.
    Women are under-represented.
  4. (informal) In or into an unconscious state.
    It took the hypnotist several minutes to make his subject go under.

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

TranslationsEdit

AdjectiveEdit

under (comparative more under, superlative most under)

  1. Lower; beneath something.
    This treatment protects the under portion of the car from rust.
    (in compounds) underbelly, underside, undershirt, undersecretary
    • 1835, J G. Peters, A treatise on equitation, or the art of horsemanship, page 179:
      The advantages he gains are of double security to him ; first, by the support of his haunches, being at all times more under than before, he learns to be more active with his hind-quarters
    • 1908, Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles, The American golfer, volume 1-2, page 10:
      If you allow the right hand to turn under more than the left, a pull will result, and if the left is more under than the right, a sliced ball will surely follow.
    • 2009, Doris Lessing, Briefing for a Descent Into Hell, page 30:
      The waves are so steep, they crash so fast and furious I'm more under than up.
  2. In a state of subordination, submission or defeat.
    The army could not keep the people under.
    • 1611, Bible (King James Version), 1 Corinthians ix. 27
      I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection.
    • 1892, Sir George Giffard, Reminiscences of a Naval Officer (page 45)
      When ready for sea we went up to Greenhithe, that their lordships might inspect us, and then to Portsmouth, to take troops to Cork, a pleasant trip; but the troops left us a legacy of "mahogany flats," with which their beds were so swarming that we never got them under.
  3. (medicine, colloquial) Under anesthesia, especially general anesthesia; sedated.
    Ensure the patient is sufficiently under.
  4. (informal) Insufficient or lacking in a particular respect.
    This chicken is a bit under. (insufficiently cooked)
    This bag of apples feels under. (of insufficient weight)
    My pay packet last week was £10 under. (of insufficient monetary amount)

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "The vertical axis", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8
  • under at OneLook Dictionary Search
  • under in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.

AnagramsEdit


DanishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under, cognate with English under, German unter.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /on(ˀ)ər/, [ɔnɐ], [ɔnˀɐ] or (as an adverb or at the end of a phrase) IPA(key): /onˀər/, [ˈɔnˀɐ]

PrepositionEdit

under

  1. under
  2. underneath
  3. below
  4. during

AdverbEdit

under

  1. under

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, cognate with English wonder, German Wunder.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /onˀər/, [ˈɔnˀɐ]

NounEdit

under n (singular definite underet, plural indefinite undere)

  1. wonder
  2. marvel
  3. miracle
InflectionEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Clipping of underdel or underside.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

under c (singular definite underen, plural indefinite undere)

  1. bottom (part)
InflectionEdit

Etymology 4Edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

under

  1. present tense of unde

LatinEdit

VerbEdit

under

  1. first-person singular present passive subjunctive of undō

Middle EnglishEdit

PrepositionEdit

under

  1. under
  2. among

Norwegian BokmålEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under.

PrepositionEdit

under

  1. below; beneath
  2. during
  3. under
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love).

NounEdit

under n (definite singular underet or undret, indefinite plural under or undere or undre, definite plural undera or underne or undra or undrene)

  1. wonder, marvel, miracle
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under. Akin to English under.

PrepositionEdit

under

  1. below, beneath, under
  2. during
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love). Akin to English wonder.

NounEdit

under n (definite singular underet, indefinite plural under, definite plural undera)

  1. wonder, marvel, miracle
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


Old DutchEdit

PrepositionEdit

under

  1. under

ReferencesEdit


Old EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *under. Compare Old Saxon undar, Old High German untar.

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

under

  1. under
  2. among

DescendantsEdit

  • Middle English: under

Old SwedishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą.

NounEdit

under n

  1. wonder, miracle
  2. wonderment, awe, marvel

DeclensionEdit

DescendantsEdit


SwedishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Swedish undir, from Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under.

PrepositionEdit

under

  1. under; below; beneath
  2. during, at the same time as
    Under lektionen pratade de hela tiden.
    During the lesson, they talked all the time.

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Swedish under, from Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love).

NounEdit

under n

  1. wonder, miracle
    Undrens tid är inte förbi.
    The age of miracles isn't over.
DeclensionEdit
Declension of under 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative under undret under undren
Genitive unders undrets unders undrens
Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ under”, in Svenska Akademiens ordbok [Swedish Academy Dictionary][1] (in Swedish), 1937

AnagramsEdit