ChineseEdit

 
language; culture; writing; formal; literary; gentle
 
to make into; to change into; ‑ization; to ... ‑ize; to transform
simp. and trad.
(文化)
 
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EtymologyEdit

Wasei kango (和製漢語), orthographically borrowed from Japanese  (ぶん) () (bunka, culture), which was in turn a semantic readaptation of Chinese 文化 (wénhuà, “the way of educating by using morality, literature and music”).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (4) (32)
Final () (59) (99)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () III II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨun/ /hˠuaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/miun/ /hʷᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/miuən/ /xuaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mun/ /hwaɨH/
Li
Rong
/miuən/ /xuaH/
Wang
Li
/mĭuən/ /xwaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯uən/ /xwaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wén huà
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wén huà
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjun › ‹ xwæH ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə[n]/ /*qʷʰˁ<r>aj-s/
English ornate transform

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 13015 5327
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯn/ /*hŋʷraːls/

NounEdit

文化

  1. (countable, uncountable) culture (Classifier: ; )
    文化體系 / 文化体系  ―  wénhuà tǐxì  ―  cultural system
    文化環境 / 文化环境  ―  wénhuà huánjìng  ―  cultural context
    中華文化 / 中华文化  ―  zhōnghuá wénhuà  ―  Chinese culture
    公司文化  ―  gōngsī wénhuà  ―  company culture
    本土文化  ―  běntǔ wénhuà  ―  indigenous culture
    燦爛文化 / 灿烂文化  ―  cànlàn wénhuà  ―  magnificent culture
    文化負載詞 / 文化负载词  ―  wénhuà fùzǎicí  ―  culturally loaded term
    開展對外文化交流 [MSC, trad.]
    开展对外文化交流 [MSC, simp.]
    kāizhǎn duìwài wénhuà jiāoliú [Pinyin]
    to conduct cultural exchange with other countries
    不同國家不同文化 [MSC, trad.]
    不同国家不同文化 [MSC, simp.]
    Bùtóng de guójiā yǒu bùtóng de wénhuà. [Pinyin]
    Different countries have different cultures.
  2. (uncountable) education; literacy
  3. (archaeology, countable) culture (assemblage of artifacts)
    龍山文化 / 龙山文化  ―  Lóngshān wénhuà  ―  the Longshan culture
  4. (literary, archaic, uncountable) education through teaching morality, literature and music

Usage notesEdit

Like the term "culture" in English, 文化 (wénhuà) can refer to both culture in the sense of a society's arts or customs, as well the attitudes and behaviours of a particular group of people, as in a "company culture". 文化 (wénhuà) however cannot refer to "culture" in the biological sense; instead the term 培養培养 (péiyǎng) is used.

Derived termsEdit

Proper nounEdit

文化

  1. () An urban village in Tamsui district, New Taipei, Taiwan
  2. (社區) Wenhua (a residential community in Ruoqiang, Ruoqiang, Bayingolin prefecture, Xinjiang, China)

JapaneseEdit

 文化 on Japanese Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
ぶん
Grade: 1

Grade: 3
on’yomi

EtymologyEdit

Learned borrowing from Middle Chinese 文化 (mjun xwæH, the way of educating by using morality, literature and music)

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

文化 (ぶんか) (bunka) (historical hiragana ぶんくわ)

  1. culture
    • 1928, 岸田國士, 「語られる言葉」の美:
      これは、国語 (こくご)性格 (せいかく)に、文化 (ぶんか)伝統 (でんとう)国民性 (こくみんせい)特質 (とくしつ)作用 (さよう)するからである。
      Kore wa, kokugo no seikaku ni, bunka no dentō, kokuminsei no tokushitsu ga sayō suru kara de aru.
      The tradition of culture and the traits of the nation function to make the character of the national language.

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Chinese: 文化
  • Korean: 문화 (munhwa)
  • Vietnamese: văn hoá

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

文化 (munhwa) (hangeul 문화)

  1. Hanja form? of 문화 (culture).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

文化

  1. Hán tự form of văn hoá (culture).