ChineseEdit

country; state; nation
 
home; family; ‑ist
home; family; ‑ist; ‑er; ‑ian; measure word for stores and schools
trad. (國家)
simp. (国家)
anagram 家國家国

EtymologyEdit

In ancient China, the fief of a 諸侯诸侯 (zhūhóu) was known as a (guó), while the fief of a 大夫 (dàfū) was known as a (jiā). The two characters are also attestable in pre-Qin texts when used together with the meaning of "country; nation; state".

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (28) (28)
Final () (132) (98)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () I II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kwək̚/ /kˠa/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʷək̚/ /kᵚa/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuək̚/ /ka/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwək̚/ /kaɨ/
Li
Rong
/kuək̚/ /ka/
Wang
Li
/kuək̚/ /ka/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kwək̚/ /ka/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guo jiā
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gwak1 gaa1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guó jiā
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwok › ‹  ›
Old
Chinese
/*[C.q]ʷˁək/ /*kˁra/
English state (n.) household

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 5547 5919
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʷɯːɡ/ /*kraː/

NounEdit

國家

  1. country; nation; (nation-)state
    英語國家英语国家  ―  yīngyǔ guójiā  ―  English-speaking country
    內陸國家内陆国家  ―  nèilù guójiā  ―  landlocked country
    單一制國家单一制国家  ―  dānyīzhì guójiā  ―  unitary state
    海洋國家海洋国家  ―  hǎiyáng guójiā  ―  maritime state
    治理國家治理国家  ―  zhìlǐ guójiā  ―  to govern a country
    報效國家报效国家  ―  bàoxiào guójiā  ―  to serve one's country
    國家稅務總局国家税务总局  ―  guójiā shuìwù zǒngjú  ―  the State Administration of Taxation (of the People's Republic of China)
    捍衛國家主權捍卫国家主权  ―  hànwèi guójiā zhǔquán  ―  to uphold national sovereignty
    損害國家利益损害国家利益  ―  sǔnhài guójiā lìyì  ―  to harm the national interest
    窒息國家活力窒息国家活力  ―  zhìxī guójiā de huólì  ―  to stifle the vitality of the country
    國家社會科學基金 [MSC, trad.]
    国家社会科学基金 [MSC, simp.]
    guójiā shèhuì kēxué jījīn [Pinyin]
    The National Social Science Fund of China
    我們這個國家真是多災多難 [MSC, trad.]
    我们这个国家真是多灾多难 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen zhège guójiā zhēnshì duōzāiduōnàn. [Pinyin]
    Our country is really troubled.
    知識分子國家寶貴財富 [MSC, trad.]
    知识分子国家宝贵财富 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhīshifènzǐ shì guójiā de bǎoguì cáifù. [Pinyin]
    Educated people are valuable assets to the country.
  2. (Classical Chinese) royal court; imperial court; imperial household; imperial government
  3. (Classical Chinese) emperor
  4. (Classical Chinese) city or town enfeoffed to a vassal lord
  5. (Classical Chinese) capital city (of a country)

SynonymsEdit

  • (country):
  • (royal court):
  • (emperor):
  • (capital city):

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (國家):
  • Japanese: (こっ)() (kokka)
  • Korean: 국가 (國家, gukga)
  • Vietnamese: quốc gia (國家)

Others:

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
こく > こっ
Jinmeiyō

Grade: 2
on’yomi

NounEdit

(こっ)() (kokka (kyūjitai, shinjitai 国家)

  1. Kyūjitai form of 国家 (nation)

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

國家 (gukga) (hangeul 국가)

  1. Hanja form? of 국가 (nation, country, state, polity).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

國家

  1. chữ Hán form of quốc gia (nation, state).