See also: , , and 🈶
U+6709, 有
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6709

[U+6708]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+670A]
Emoji u1f236.svg
🈶 U+1F236, 🈶
SQUARED CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6709
🈵
[U+1F235]
Enclosed Ideographic Supplement 🈷
[U+1F237]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order (Japan)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 74, +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 大月 (KB), four-corner 40227, composition𠂇)

Usage notesEdit

Despite the technically-correct radical being (meat) as described in this entry’s glyph origin section, is associated with the radical (moon) in dictionaries for historical reasons and is likewise written as if it contained the radical, i.e. it has instead of inside of .

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 504, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14332
  • Dae Jaweon: page 880, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2041, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6709

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠂇
𢇔
𪠥

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢʷɯʔ): phonetic  (OC *ɢʷɯs, hand) + semantic  (meat) – a hand holding meat, hence “in possession of”. The hand shape has been significantly abstracted; compare (OC *ɢʷɯʔ, *ɢʷɯs).

Alternatively, the graph was perhaps originally intended for the word (OC *qʰɯːʔ, “minced pickled meat”), which also has the (OC *ɢʷɯs) element as phonetic.

Shuowen Jiezi and other ancient sources have erroneously analyzed the character as a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢʷɯʔ): phonetic  (OC *ɢʷɯs) + semantic  (moon). Shuowen Jiezi defines as "不宜有也" ("[to have something that] not should be had"), citing the Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋傳): "日月有食之" ("There are solar and lunar eclipses"). As eclipses were not auspicious to the Chinese, they were "something that should not be happening". The component alludes to the inauspicious lunar eclipse.

EtymologyEdit

Possibly Sino-Tibetan. Compare Tibetan ཡོད (yod, to be; to have). Related to:

  • (OC *ɢʷɯs, “to offer, to sacrifice”) [causative, i.e. “to cause to have”]
  • (OC *ɢʷɯs, “again”) [adverbial]
  • (OC *ɡʷɯːɡ, “some; or”) [indefinite]

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • ô - vernacular;
  • īu - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ū/ǔ - vernacular;
    • iú - literary.
    Note: iu2 - prefix.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (35)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɨuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦiuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣiəuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦuwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣiuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣĭəuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯ə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yǒu
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yǒu
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hjuwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ʷəʔ/
    English have, exist

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 15595
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢʷɯʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to have; to possess (when a subject is present)
      /   ―  yǒu liǎng liàng chē.  ―  I have two cars.
      大象鼻子 [MSC, trad.]
      大象鼻子 [MSC, simp.]
      Dàxiàng yǒuzhe chángcháng de bízi. [Pinyin]
      Elephants have long trunks.
      Antonym: ()
    2. there is; to exist (when a subject is absent)
        ―  Yǒu hěn duō rén.  ―  There are a lot of people.
      這兒 / 这儿  ―  Zhèr yǒu shū ma?  ―  Are there any books here?
      這裡清新空氣 [MSC, trad.]
      这里清新空气 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhèlǐ yǒuzhe qīngxīn de kōngqì. [Pinyin]
      There is fresh air here.
    3. (euphemistic) to be pregnant with a child
    4. abundant; affluent
    5. many; much; (of time) long; (of age) old
    6. some (indefinite pronoun)
    7. (literary or dialectal) Placed before a verb to emphasize that the action has been done.
      古語 / 古语  ―  gǔyǔ yǒu yún  ―  as the saying goes (lit. the old saying has said)
      拄才出來 [Min Nan, trad.]
      拄才出来 [Min Nan, simp.]
      I tú-chiah ū chhut-lâi. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
      He did come just now.
      海洋公園 [Cantonese, trad.]
      海洋公园 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Ngo5 jau5 heoi3 gwo3 hoi2 joeng4 gung1 jyun4-2. [Jyutping]
      I have been to Ocean Park.
    8. A surname​.
        ―  Yǒu  ―  Philosopher You
    9. A meaningless prefix.
        ―  yǒuxià  ―  China
    Usage notesEdit
    • In Mandarin, is the only verb not negated with (). It is negated with (méi).
    /   ―  wǒ méiyǒu qián  ―  I don't have any money
    SynonymsEdit
    • (to exist):
    • (zài)
    • (cún) (literary, or in compounds)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (u); (ゆう) ()
    • Vietnamese: hữu ()

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (yòu, “again”).
    2. and; with a remainder of (when dividing an integer by ten)

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Stroke order
    (Japan)
     

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. exist
    2. get to exist; appear
    3. keep; maintain
    4. existence; belonging
    5. someone did certain thing
    6. possess
    7. have
    8. happen
    9. occur
    10. approximately

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ゆう
    Grade: 3
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɨuX). The sense “and, with a remainder of” is from Middle Chinese / (MC ɦɨuH).

    The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (ゆう) ( (historical kana いう)

    1. exist
    2. have; possess; own
    3. (between numbers) and; with a remainder of
    Derived termsEdit

    NounEdit

    (ゆう) ( (historical kana いう)

    1. existence
    2. possession
    3. (Buddhism) Synonym of (u)
    4. Short for 有限会社 (yūgengaisha, limited company).

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɨuX).

    The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    () (u

    1. exist
    2. (Buddhism) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived termsEdit

    NounEdit

    () (u

    1. (Buddhism) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Etymology 3Edit

    Proper nounEdit

    (なお) (Nao

    1. A female given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 있을 (isseul yu))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit


    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit


    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: hữu[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: hữu[1][3][4][5], hỡi[2][6], hơi[2]

    1. Hán tự form of hữu (to have; to own).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit


    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit