See also:
U+78E8, 磨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-78E8

[U+78E7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+78E9]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 112, +11, 16 strokes, cangjie input 戈金一口 (ICMR) or 戈木一口 (IDMR), four-corner 00261, composition )

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 835, character 39
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24449
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1253, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2453, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+78E8

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Originally written as (). Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *maːl, *maːls): semantic (rock) + abbreviated phonetic (OC *mralʔ).

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp. ⿸广石

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • muài - vernacular;
  • mò̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bôa - vernacular;
    • mô͘ - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter ma
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /muɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /muɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /muɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /muɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /muɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /muɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    mo4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ma ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mˁaj/
    English rub, grind

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 8706
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*maːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to grind; to sharpen
    2. to rub; to chafe
    3. to wear away; to obliterate
    4. to wear out; to wear down; to erode
    5. to dawdle; to waste (time)
    6. to pester; to plague (someone)

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    trad.
    simp. #
    2nd round simp. ⿸广石

    PronunciationEdit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter maH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /muɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /muɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /muɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /muɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /muɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /muɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    mo6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ maH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mˁaj-s/
    English grinding stone

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 8710
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*maːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. grinder; mill
    2. to grind; to mill
    3. to turn around
    4. (Cantonese) to waste time

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    trad.
    simp. #
    alternative forms

    Possibly from (OC *maːl, “to approach; to touch; to draw near”); cognate with Cantonese (maai4, “to approach”) (Yan et al., 2016).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Teochew) to approach

    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai
    Kyūjitai
    [1][2]

    磨󠄁
    +&#xE0101;?
    (Adobe-Japan1)
     
    磨󠄃
    +&#xE0103;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
    See here for details.

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. to polish
    2. to grind
    3. to brush (teeth)

    ReadingsEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC muɑ); compare Mandarin ():

    • Go-on: (ma, Jōyō)
    • Kan-on: (ba)

    From Middle Chinese (MC muɑH); compare Mandarin ():

    From native Japanese roots:

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1914, 漢和大辭書 (Kanwa Dai Jisho, “The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 1546 (paper), page 825 (digital), Tōkyō: 興文社 (Kōbunsha)
    2. ^ 1927, 新漢和辭典 (Shin Kanwa Jiten, “The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 885 (paper), page 455 (digital), Ōsaka: 松雲堂 (Shōundō)

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (gal ma))

    1. Hanja form? of (grind, polish, rub, wear out).
    2. Hanja form? of (millstone).

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: ma, mài

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.