English edit

Etymology 1 edit

Noun edit

ma (plural mas)

  1. (astronomy, usually in the plural) Abbreviation of milli-arcsecond.

Etymology 2 edit

The sound, which parents interpret as a reference to themselves, is very commonly made by infants.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /mɑː/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɑː

Noun edit

ma (plural mas, not generally used in the plural)

  1. (colloquial, and in direct address) mother, mama
  2. (colloquial) The landlady of a theater.
    • 1949, Shaw Desmond, The Edwardian Story, page 322:
      [] that dear little man writing in the guestbook of the "Ma" or theatrical landlady []
Usage notes edit
  • Often capitalized when used to refer to a specific person.
    Hey, Ma, I’d like you to meet my friend Jamie.
Synonyms edit
Translations edit
References edit
  • (landlady of a theater): 1984, Jonathon Green, Newspeak.

See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

Abbreviation.

Noun edit

ma

  1. May
Usage notes edit
  • Usually capitalised as Ma.

Etymology 4 edit

From my.

Determiner edit

ma

  1. (dialectal, informal) Alternative spelling of my

Etymology 5 edit

From Chinese (ma, “of course!”).[1]

Particle edit

ma (Manglish, Singlish)

  1. Alternative form of mah
    • 1998 April 24, viken, “tcs shows”, in sg.rec.tv (Usenet):
      Singlish is acceptable in Singapore mah
    • 2015 April 17, Jalelah Abu Baker, “What's the difference between 'lah' and 'lor': Poet Gwee Li Sui's take on nuances of Singlish goes viral”, in The Straits Times[1]:
      I dun have mah.
    • 2017 April 30, Wong Kim Hoh, “It Changed My Life: Migrant worker goes from painting condos to boss of own company”, in The Straits Times[2]:
      "I was already 32, so must get married mah," he says, using the Singlish word often used to express something which is obvious.

References edit

  1. ^ Lee, Jack Tsen-Ta (2004), “mah”, in A Dictionary of Singlish and Singapore English

Anagrams edit

'Are'are edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. and

References edit

Acehnese edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. mother

References edit

Afar edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Afroasiatic *ma, *mi-.

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

(bound form maa-)

  1. what? what kind of?

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

References edit

  • E. M. Parker; R. J. Hayward (1985), “ma”, in An Afar-English-French dictionary (with Grammatical Notes in English), University of London, →ISBN

Afrikaans edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ma (plural ma's)

  1. mom, mother

Synonyms edit

Antonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Ajië edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. and

References edit

Akkadian edit

Etymology edit

Unknown

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

ma

  1. (enclitic) and, but
  2. (enclitic) used to stress single words, especially the predicate of nominal clauses
    𒌓𒈠𒈠 [ūmamma]u₄-ma-mathis very day

Alternative forms edit

Cuneiform spellings
Phonetic

References edit

Alemannic German edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German man, from Old High German man, from Proto-Germanic *mann-.

Noun edit

ma m (Gressoney, Issime)

  1. man
  2. husband

References edit

Anaang edit

Verb edit

  1. to love

Further reading edit

  • Cristiane Benjamin Santos, Aspectos morfossintáticos dos pronomes pessoais em Anaan (2007)
  • Bruce Connell, Lower Cross Wordlist

Anguthimri edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. (Mpakwithi) man

Verb edit

ma

  1. (transitive, Mpakwithi) to hear
  2. (transitive, Mpakwithi) to listen

References edit

  • Terry Crowley, The Mpakwithi dialect of Anguthimri (1981), page 187

Aromanian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin magis. Compare Romanian mai.

Adverb edit

ma

  1. more

Etymology 2 edit

From Italian ma.

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. but, yet
  2. if

Asturian edit

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

ma f (plural mas)

  1. mother
    Synonym: madre

Bambara edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. sea cow

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

ma (auxiliary)

  1. (verbal auxiliary) marks an action which is not accomplished
    A ma na fɔlɔ
    He has not come yet
    Sirajɛ ma taa dɔgɔ la
    Siraje did not go to the market

References edit

Bavarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Unstressed form of mia

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. me (dative)
  2. we

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle High German man, from Old High German man, from Proto-West Germanic *mann, from Proto-Germanic *mann- (person). Compare German man and Dutch men.

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. one, you (indefinite pronoun; construed as a third-person singular)
    Ma waß nia, wås an erwoat.You never know what to expect.
  2. they, people (people in general)
    Des sågt ma hoid a so.That's just the way people say it.
  3. they (some unspecified group of people)

Big Nambas edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

ma

  1. come
    aparvr ti aparma paua, patrahr = If they both come the day after tomorrow, wait for them.

References edit

Breton edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. my

Interjection edit

ma

  1. good!

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. that
  2. if

Synonyms edit

Cameroon Pidgin edit

Determiner edit

ma

  1. Alternative spelling of my (1st person singular possessive determiner)

Caolan edit

Pronunciation edit

  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Noun edit

ma

  1. horse

Catalan edit

Etymology edit

From Vulgar Latin *mam, reduced form of Latin meam.

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

ma

  1. feminine singular of mon

Chamorro edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. they

Usage notes edit

See also edit

References edit

  • Donald M. Topping (1973) Chamorro Reference Grammar[3], Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Cimbrian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle High German māne, from Old High German māno, from Proto-West Germanic *mānō, from Proto-Germanic *mēnô (moon).

Noun edit

ma m

  1. (Tredici Comuni) moon
Alternative forms edit

References edit

Etymology 2 edit

An unstressed pronunciation of månn (man).

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. (Luserna) one, you (indefinite pronoun)

References edit

Coatepec Nahuatl edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. hand.

Dama (Sierra Leone) edit

Etymology edit

Related to widespread words for "mother" and related respectful terms for women across West Africa.

Noun edit

ma

  1. mother-in-law

References edit

  • Dalby, T. D. P. (1963), “The extinct language of Dama”, in Sierra Leone Language Review, volume 2, Freetown: Fourah Bay College, pages 50–54

Dorze edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. bee (insect)

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ma f (plural ma's, diminutive maatje n)

  1. (informal) mother

Synonyms edit

Descendants edit

  • Negerhollands: maa

See also edit

Efik edit

Verb edit

  1. love, like

Further reading edit

Estonian edit

Etymology edit

Abbreviation of mina, from Proto-Finnic *minä, from Proto-Uralic *minä.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ma (genitive mu, partitive mind, long form mina)

  1. I (1st person singular personal pronoun)

Usage notes edit

  • Used unstressed in a sentence; when the pronoun is stressed, mina is used.

Declension edit

Declension of ma
1st person singular plural
long short long short
nominative mina ma meie me
genitive minu mu meie me
partitive mind meid
illative minusse musse meisse
inessive minus mus meis
elative minust must meist
allative minule mulle meile
adessive minul mul meil
ablative minult mult meilt
translative minuks meieks meiks
terminative minuni meieni
essive minuna meiena
abessive minuta meieta
comitative minuga muga meiega

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • ma”, in [EKSS] Eesti keele seletav sõnaraamat [Descriptive Dictionary of the Estonian Language] (online version, in Estonian), Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus (Estonian Language Foundation), 2009
  • ma”, in [ÕS] Eesti õigekeelsussõnaraamat ÕS 2018 [Estonian Spelling Dictionary] (online version, in Estonian), Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus (Estonian Language Foundation), 2018
  • ma in Sõnaveeb (Eesti Keele Instituut)

Finnish edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈmɑ/, [ˈmɑ̝]
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification(key): ma

Etymology 1 edit

From maanantai.

Noun edit

ma

  1. Abbreviation of maanantai (Monday).

Further reading edit

Etymology 2 edit

See minä. Compare Estonian ma.

Pronoun edit

ma (poetic, archaic)

  1. (personal) I
Synonyms edit

French edit

Etymology edit

From Old French ma, from Latin mea.

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

ma f

  1. feminine singular of mon
    Ma mère est venue me voir.
    My mother came to see me.

Related terms edit

Possessee
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine
Possessor Singular First person mon1 ma mes
Second person ton1 ta tes
Third person son1 sa ses
Plural First person notre nos
Second person votre2 vos2
Third person leur leurs
1 Also used before feminine adjectives and nouns beginning with a vowel or mute h.
2 Also used as the polite singular form.

Descendants edit

  • Louisiana Creole:

Further reading edit

Friulian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin magis.

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. but

German edit

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ma

  1. (colloquial) Pronunciation spelling of mal.

Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. 2nd-person singular pronoun: you
  2. 2nd-person plural pronoun: you
  3. 2nd-person singular possessive pronoun: your
  4. 2nd-person plural possessive pronoun: your

See also edit

Hawaiian edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

ma

  1. in, at

Hungarian edit

Etymology edit

Probably related to más.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ma

  1. today
    Synonym: (folksy) máma
    Coordinate terms: holnap, tegnap
    • 1975, Imre Kertész, translated by Tim Wilkinson, Sorstalanság, Budapest: Magvető Könyvkiadó (2016), →ISBN, page 5:
      Ma nem mentem iskolába. Azaz mentem, de csak, hogy hazakéredzkedjem az osztályfőnökömtől.
      I didn’t go to school today. Or rather, I did go, but only to ask my class teacher’s permission to take the day off.
  2. (attributively, before any time of day) this …… (morning etc.), to-…… (as in “tonight”)
    ma reggel/délelőttthis morning
    ma délutánthis afternoon
    ma estethis evening
    ma éjjel/éjszakatonight
    ma hajnalban, délben, éjfélkorat dawn, noon, midnight today

Noun edit

ma (usually uncountable, plural mák)

  1. (usually preceded by the definite article “a) today (the present time period; nowadays)

Declension edit

The suffixed singular forms máig, mára, mához, máról, and mától are common, while mát, mának, mával, máért, mában, mánál, mába, and mából occur mostly in a figurative sense, referring to the present time. The phrase a mai nap is commonly used in its literal sense, adding suffixes to nap instead of this term. Its plural forms are virtually non-existent.

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative ma
accusative mát
dative mának
instrumental mával
causal-final máért
translative mává
terminative máig
essive-formal maként
essive-modal
inessive mában
superessive mán
adessive mánál
illative mába
sublative mára
allative mához
elative mából
delative máról
ablative mától
non-attributive
possessive - singular
máé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
máéi

Its (single- and multiple-possession) possessive forms are hardly if ever used.

Possessive forms of ma
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. mám
2nd person sing. mád
3rd person sing. mája
1st person plural mánk
2nd person plural mátok
3rd person plural májuk

Derived terms edit

Expressions

Related terms edit

Further reading edit

Ido edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from French mais, Italian ma, Portuguese and Spanish mas, all from Latin magis, from Proto-Indo-European *méǵh₂s.

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. but

Synonyms edit

Interlingua edit

Etymology edit

From Italian ma.

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. but

Istriot edit

Etymology edit

From Latin magis.

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. but
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 68:
      Ma sulo i tuoi bai uoci, anema meîa,
      But only your beautiful eyes, oh soul of mine

Italian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin magis.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈma/*, /ˈma/
  • Rhymes: -a
  • Hyphenation:

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. but

See also edit

Noun edit

ma f

  1. Abbreviation of mamma.

Interjection edit

ma

  1. (informal, emphatic) indicates emotion or emphasis
    Ma che carino!Oh, how cute!
  2. (informal) used to introduce a new topic or a question
    Ma...tu sei di Roma?So...you're from Rome?

Further reading edit

Japanese edit

Romanization edit

ma

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Jarawa edit

Etymology edit

Cognate to Önge mi (I; me).

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. me; us (singular and plural first-person pronoun in the accusative case)

Usage notes edit

The pronoun mi can also be used in the accusative case, but it is less common than ma. When used in possessive constructions, the choice of pronoun is largely determined by vowel harmony.

See also edit

Jarawa pronouns
Person Default form Accusative form Prefixed form
1st mi ma m-
2nd ŋi ŋa ŋ-
ni na n-
ən ən-
3rd hi, əhi hiwa h-, hi-, ih-, he-, əh-
ən (for generic third-person)

References edit

  • Kumar, Pramod (2012) Descriptive and Typological Study of Jarawa[5] (PhD). Jawaharlal Nehru University. Page 76—85.

Kabyle edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. if

Kavalan edit

Adverb edit

ma

  1. only

Noun edit

ma

  1. daddy; father (term of address)

Keoru-Ahia edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. water

References edit

Kikuyu edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

As for Tonal Class, Benson (1964) classifies this term into Class 3 with a monosyllabic stem, together with rũkũ, and so on.

Noun edit

ma

  1. truth[2]

Adverb edit

ma

  1. truly[2]

Etymology 2 edit

Particle edit

ma

  1. (for class 6) of
    maguta ma mbarĩki
    castor oil
    (literally, “oil of castor bean(s)”)

References edit

  1. ^ Yukawa, Yasutoshi (1981). "A Tentative Tonal Analysis of Kikuyu Nouns: A Study of Limuru Dialect." In Journal of Asian and African Studies, No. 22, 75–123.
  2. 2.0 2.1 “ma” in Benson, T.G. (1964). Kikuyu-English dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Ladino edit

Etymology edit

From Old Spanish mas, from Latin magis.

Conjunction edit

ma (Latin spelling)

  1. but
    Synonym: ama
    • 1979 July, Moshe Shaul, “Istoria i Dezvelopamiento del Djudeo-Espaniol”, in Aki Yerushalayim[6], archived from the original on 3 December 2020, page 11:
      La primera de eyas es ke el djudeo-espaniol kontiene un grande numero de arkaizmos o sea, palavras ke eran empleadas en Espania asta el siglo XV ma ke dezparesieron dezde entonses de su vokabulario, mientres ke en el djudeo-espaniol kontinuan a existir asta oy.
      The first of them is that Judeo-Spanish contains a large number of archaisms, or rather, words that were used in Spain until the 15th century but which disappeared after then from its vocabulary, while in Judeo-Spanish they continue to be used to this day.
    • 2020 January 29, Metin Delevi, “El 27 de Enero es el dia de memoria de las viktimas del Nazismo, del Olokosto…”, in Şalom[7]:
      Devemos de saver ke el antisemitizmo es una de las formas ekstremas del rasizmo ma ay otras formas de rasizmo i devemos de luchar kon todo modo forma del rasizmo.
      We must know that antisemitism is one of the extreme forms of racism, but there are other forms of racism and we must fight every form of racism.
  2. why

Lala (South Africa) edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-jɪ́ma.

Verb edit

-má

  1. to stand

Lhao Vo edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with Lashi muì and Burmese အမွေ (a.mwe).

Noun edit

ma

  1. inheritance
  2. heirloom

References edit

  • Dr. Ola Hanson, A Dictionary of the Kachin Language (1906).

Ligurian edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. but

Livonian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Shorter form of minā.

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. I; first person pronoun, referring to the speaker

Declension edit

See also edit

References edit

Renāte Blumberga, Tapio Mäkeläinen, Karl Pajusalu (2013), Lībieši: vēsture, valoda un kultūra, Rīga: Līvõ Kultūr sidām, →ISBN

Lower Sorbian edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

ma

  1. third-person singular present of měś

Maltese edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabic مَا (, not).

Adverb edit

ma

  1. not; used to negate verbs and pronominal adverbs
    Illum ma nixrobx.
    I do not drink today.
    Qatt ma nixrob.
    I never drink. / I do not ever drink.
Usage notes edit
  • Generally used together with the negative ending -x attached to the verb or pronominal adverb. This ending is absent, however, when another negative word is used, such as qatt (never), ebda (no, none), ħadd (nobody), xejn (nothing).

Etymology 2 edit

From Arabic مَا (, what).

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. (relative) Alternative form of li (who, which, that), used in some fossiled expressions
    L-ewwel ma tiekol, l-għajn.
    You eat with your eyes first.
    (literally, “The first that eats is the eye.”)
  2. (obsolete, with comparative adjective) how (as in “how beautiful is...”)
    Synonym: kemm
    • ca. 1760, G.P.F. Agius de Soldanis, Discorso tra due contadini sopra le nuove correnti:
      Rait e Sultana, u makbar u mesbahh ma hi, ma t challi hhasra, ghaliesc i enghat li t-arga mnein giet.
      Rajt is-Sultana. U ma akbar u ma isbaħ ma hi! Imma tħalli ħasra, għaliex jingħad li terġa’ mnejn ġiet.
      I saw the Sultana [a captured Turkish ship]. And how big and how beautiful she is! But is a pity, because they say she will go back to where she came from.
Derived terms edit

Mandarin edit

Romanization edit

ma (ma5ma0, Zhuyin ˙ㄇㄚ)

  1. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  2. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  3. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  4. Hanyu Pinyin reading of

ma

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes edit

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Maonan edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. dog

Maricopa edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. milk

Mbyá Guaraní edit

Adverb edit

ma

  1. already

Particle edit

ma

  1. separates the topic from the rest of the sentence.
    Oja ma haku.
    As for the pan, it is hot.

Middle English edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. Alternative form of man (one, you)

Mursi edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with Suri ma.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /mà/, [mà]
  • Hyphenation: ma

Noun edit

ma (Ethiopic script )

  1. water
  2. river

References edit

  • David Turton; Moges Yigezu; Olisarali Olibui (2008), “ma”, in Mursi-English-Amharic dictionary, →ISBN, page 117
  • Firew Girma Worku (2020) A grammar of Mursi, page 123

Neapolitan edit

Etymology edit

From Latin magis. Compare Italian ma, French mais.

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. but

Nefamese edit

Etymology edit

From Assamese মা (ma), Early Assamese মাৱ (mawo), from Prakrit 𑀫𑀸𑀬𑀸 (māyā), from Sanskrit माता (mātā).

Noun edit

ma

  1. mother, mom

Nigerian Pidgin edit

Etymology edit

From English my.

Determiner edit

ma (with tonal diacritic: má)

  1. my

North Frisian edit

Preposition edit

ma

  1. (Mooring) with

Northern Ndebele edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-jɪ́ma.

Verb edit

-má

  1. to stand

Inflection edit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Old Czech edit

Etymology edit

Derived from the 1st person dual suffix -ma, which itself is a neologism, found in 15th century texts, derived from the 1st person dual suffix -va under the influence of the 1st person plural suffices -m/-me/-my. There aren't many attestations of this pronoun.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. (rare) we two (first person dual)
    Synonyms: , va

Declension edit

References edit

Old English edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *maiz. Cognate with Old Frisian , Old Saxon mēr, Old Dutch mēr, Old High German mēr, Old Norse meir, Gothic 𐌼𐌰𐌹𐍃 (mais).

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

  1. more
  2. instead, rather

Adjective edit

(indeclinable)

  1. more (often + genitive)
    • The Life of Saint Margaret
      Sēo hāliġe fǣmne him andswarode and cwæþ, "Nis mē ālīefed þæt iċ þē tō seċġe, for þon þū neart nā wierðe mīne stefne tō ġehīerenne. Godes bebodu iċ wille ġehīeran and ġecȳðan. And þū, dēofol, ādumba nū, for þon þe iċ nylle nān word of þīnum mūðe ġehīeran."
      The holy virgin answered him and said, "I’m not allowed to tell you, because you don't deserve to hear my voice. God's commandments are what I want to hear and impart. And you, demon, be quiet now, because I don't want to hear one more word out of your mouth."

Usage notes edit

The expected comparative and superlative forms of , māra and mǣst, occur, but are traditionally considered to be suppletive forms of miċel instead.

Old French edit

Etymology edit

From Latin mea.

Determiner edit

ma f (masculine mon, plural mes)

  1. my (first-person singular possessive)

Descendants edit

  • French: ma

Old Frisian edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. one

Old Irish edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. Alternative spelling of

Omaha-Ponca edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. snow

References edit

Opao edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. water

References edit

Orokolo edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. water

References edit

Phalura edit

Etymology edit

From Sanskrit (ma, 1sg (base of oblique cases)).

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ma (personal, Perso-Arabic spelling مہ)

  1. I (1sg nom, subject), me (1sg direct object)

Alternative forms edit

  • máa- (Forming one phonological word with following postposition or clitic, e.g. máathe 'me, to me' with the 'to'.)

References edit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[8], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “ma”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press

Pipil edit

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

  1. Subjunctive marker
    Nechilwijket ma nikinkwepili musta
    They told me to return it to them tomorrow
    Tikajkawat ma seseya pal tikwat
    We leave it to cool down so we can eat it
  2. Clipping of maka. (Negative imperative marker)
    Ma shina kiuni!
    Don't say that!

Usage notes edit

  • The particle ma helps disambiguating many of the subjunctive forms from the present indicative or imperative forms.

Verb edit

-má

  1. Clipping of -maka.

Pitjantjatjara edit

Adverb edit

ma

  1. away

Pohnpeian edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. if

Polish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Verb edit

ma

  1. third-person singular present indicative of mieć
    Andrzej ma 18 lat.Andrzej is 18 years old.

Etymology 2 edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. (literary) Alternative form of moja.

Further reading edit

  • ma in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese edit

Pronunciation edit

Contraction edit

ma

  1. Contraction of me a (her/it to me).

Romani edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Prakrit 𑀫𑀸 (), from Ashokan Prakrit 𑀫𑀸 (), from Sanskrit मा ().

Particle edit

ma

  1. don't (prohibitive particle)

References edit

  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “māˊ”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press, page 574
  • Boretzky, Norbert; Igla, Birgit (1994), “ma¹”, in Wörterbuch Romani-Deutsch-Englisch für den südosteuropäischen Raum : mit einer Grammatik der Dialektvarianten [Romani-German-English dictionary for the Southern European region] (in German), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, →ISBN, page 172a
  • Marcel Courthiade (2009), “ma (and-e rokhimàta)”, in Melinda Rézműves, editor, Morri angluni rromane ćhibǎqi evroputni lavustik = Első rromani nyelvű európai szótáram : cigány, magyar, angol, francia, spanyol, német, ukrán, román, horvát, szlovák, görög [My First European-Romani Dictionary: Romani, Hungarian, English, French, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian, Croatian, Slovak, Greek] (in Hungarian; English), Budapest: Fővárosi Onkormányzat Cigány Ház--Romano Kher, →ISBN, page 231a

Romanian edit

Adverb edit

ma

  1. Obsolete form of mai.

References edit

  • ma in Academia Română, Micul dicționar academic, ediția a II-a, Bucharest: Univers Enciclopedic, 2010. →ISBN

Salar edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. and

Samoan edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with Maori me and Hawaiian me.

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. and
  2. because

Preposition edit

ma

  1. with

Savi edit

Etymology edit

From Sanskrit मया (mayā) or another form of अहम् (aham, I).

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. I; first-person singular personal pronoun

References edit

  • Nina Knobloch (2020) A grammar sketch of Sauji: An Indo-Aryan language of Afghanistan[9], Stockholm University

Scots edit

Etymology edit

From Middle English mi, my, apocopated form of min, myn, from Old English mīn (my, mine), from Proto-Germanic *mīnaz (my, mine, pron.) (genitive of *ek (I)), from Proto-Indo-European *méynos (my; mine).

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

ma

  1. my
    Synonym: wir

Scottish Gaelic edit

Etymology edit

From Old Irish , from Proto-Celtic *mā, *ma (compare Cornish and Breton mar), from Proto-Indo-European *meh₂.

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. if
    Ma tha thu ’g iarrraidh sin…If you want that…
    Ma bhios tu…/Ma bhitheas tu…If you will be…/If you are… (habitual)

Usage notes edit

  • Where followed by the ‘future’ tense, the corresponding relative verb-form is used.
    Dèan e, ma thogras tu.
    Do it, if you want.
  • In the conditional tense, instead of ma, nan/nam is used in positive sentences and mura/mur/mana in negative ones.

Serbo-Croatian edit

Etymology edit

From Italian ma, reinforced by Ancient Greek μά (); both ultimately from Latin magis.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /mâ/
  • Hyphenation: m‧a

Interjection edit

(Cyrillic spelling ма̏)

  1. bah, whatever
  2. Placed at the beginning of a sentence to add intensity and surprise
    Ma kako?!How?!
    Ma gdje?Where in the world...?
    Ma da?Really?
    Ma to je on!That's definitely him!
  3. Placed at the beginning of a sentence to express dismissal and indignation
    Ma ne.No way.
    Ma daj.Oh come on.
    Ma kakvi.Impossible.
  4. Used to emphasize sarcasm
    Ma da!/Ma svakako!/Ma naravno!Yeah, sure.
    Ma nemoj.Oh you don't say?
    Ma nikad niste vi krivi.Of course it can never be your fault.

Situ edit

Etymology edit

Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ma.

Particle edit

ma

  1. not, no; negative particle

Further reading edit

  • M. Prins, A Grammar of rGyalrong, Jiǎomùzú (Kyom-kyo) Dialects: A Web of Relations (2016) (and earlier A Web of Relations: A Grammar of rGyalrong, Jiǎomùzú (Kyom-kyo) Dialects, 2011)

Slovak edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. genitive/accusative of ja

Spanish edit

Noun edit

ma f (plural mas)

  1. (Latin America) mum; mom

Further reading edit

Sumerian edit

Romanization edit

ma

  1. Romanization of 𒈠 (ma)

Suri edit

Noun edit

  1. water

References edit

  • 1999, Michael Bryant, Aspects of Tirmaga Grammar (in notes, as ma)
  • Michael Bryant, A Brief Grammar of the Suri Language (2011) (as )

Swazi edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-jɪ́ma.

Verb edit

-́ma

  1. to stand
  2. to stop, to wait

Inflection edit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Tagalog edit

Pronunciation edit

  • Hyphenation: ma
  • IPA(key): /ma/, [mɐ]

Etymology 1 edit

Influenced by Baybayin character (ma).

Noun edit

ma (Baybayin spelling )

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter M/m, in the Abakada alphabet.
    Synonyms: (in the Filipino alphabet) em, (in the Abecedario) eme

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

ma (Baybayin spelling )

  1. Clipping of mama: mom

Etymology 3 edit

Noun edit

ma (Baybayin spelling )

  1. (zoology) mollusk with a shell that looks like a coat of mail

Further reading edit

  • ma”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Tahitian edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. and

Preposition edit

ma

  1. with

Tairuma edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. Alternative form of ma'a

References edit

Tày edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Tai *ʰmaːᴬ (dog). Cognate with Thai หมา (mǎa), Northern Thai ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ, Lao ໝາ (), Tai Dam ꪢꪱ, ᦖᦱ (ṁaa), Shan မႃ (mǎa), Tai Nüa ᥛᥣᥴ (máa), Aiton မႃ (), Ahom 𑜉𑜠 (ma), Zhuang ma, Saek หม่า.

Noun edit

ma (𬍄)

  1. (zoology) dog
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Vietnamese ma.

Noun edit

ma ()

  1. ghost

Teanu edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Vanikoro *ma, from Proto-Oceanic *lima, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *lima, from Proto-Austronesian *lima.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. arm
  2. hand

References edit

Ternate edit

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. relative clause introducer; which, that
    Synonym: yang

References edit

  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

Toaripi edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. (Toaripi, Kaipi, Sepoe) water

References edit

Tokelauan edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ma]
  • Hyphenation: ma

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Polynesian *ma. Cognates include Maori and Samoan ma.

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. Joins noun clauses; and, with
    • 1948, Tūlāfono fakavae a Tokelau [Constitution of Tokelau]‎[10], page 1:
      Ko te fakavae tenei e matea i nā nuku ma kafai ona tagata e faifaimea fakatahi, ma nonofo fakatahi i te filemu ma te fiafia.
      This foundation is recognised in the villages and if its people repeatedly do things together, and they live together in peace and happiness.
  2. Joins verb clauses; and, also, too
    • 1948, Tūlāfono fakavae a Tokelau [Constitution of Tokelau]‎[11], page 1:
      Ko te fakavae tenei e matea i nā nuku ma kafai ona tagata e faifaimea fakatahi, ma nonofo fakatahi i te filemu ma te fiafia.
      This foundation is recognised in the villages and if its people repeatedly do things together, and they live together in peace and happiness.

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Polynesian *ma.

Preposition edit

ma

  1. from, away from

Etymology 3 edit

Preposition edit

ma

  1. Marks a prospective role of the subject; as, for

References edit

  • R. Simona, editor (1986) Tokelau Dictionary[12], Auckland: Office of Tokelau Affairs, page 198

Tz'utujil edit

Adverb edit

ma

  1. not

Veps edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *maa, from Proto-Uralic *mëxe.

Noun edit

ma

  1. earth
  2. ground
  3. soil
  4. land, country, region
  5. state

Inflection edit

Inflection of ma (inflection type 13/ma)
nominative sing. ma
genitive sing. man
partitive sing. mad
partitive plur. maid
singular plural
nominative ma mad
accusative man mad
genitive man maiden
partitive mad maid
essive-instructive man main
translative maks maikš
inessive mas maiš
elative maspäi maišpäi
illative maha maihe
adessive mal mail
ablative malpäi mailpäi
allative male maile
abessive mata maita
comitative manke maidenke
prolative madme maidme
approximative I manno maidenno
approximative II mannoks maidennoks
egressive mannopäi maidennopäi
terminative I mahasai maihesai
terminative II malesai mailesai
terminative III massai
additive I mahapäi maihepäi
additive II malepäi mailepäi

Derived terms edit

References edit

Vietnamese edit

 
Vietnamese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia vi

Etymology edit

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(classifier con) ma

  1. ghost (spirit appearing after death)
  2. (archaic) a demon
    Synonym: quỷ

Derived terms edit

Derived terms

Romanization edit

ma

  1. Sino-Vietnamese reading of

Derived terms edit

Derived terms

Anagrams edit

Vilamovian edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. (indefinite) one, they (indefinite third-person singular pronoun)

Vilela edit

Noun edit

ma

  1. water

References edit

  • Bernard Comrie, Lucía Golluscio, Language Contact and Documentation (2015, →ISBN
  • Bartolomé Tavera-Acosta, En el sur: (Dialectos indígenas de Venezuela) (1907)

Warao edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. my
    Ma rahe hakaya.
    My brother runs.
    Natu ma tatutuma iji minajara? [1]
    Granny, have you not seen my wives?
  2. me, accusative of iné
    Ma hube abuae.
    A snake bit me.
    Ihi ma isiko naonahara? [2]
    Don't you come with me?

References edit

  1. ^ Vaquero 1965.274, 278
  2. ^ Romero-Figueroa 1985a.109

West Makian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. (animate) third-person possessive pronoun, its
    mene me mo omathis is his child (literally, “this (is) he his child”)
    da kabi mo gouthe goat's leg
Usage notes edit

The possessive pronoun ma follows West Makian vowel harmony, and as such may surface as me, mi, or mo.

Alternative forms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

ma

  1. (distal) that, those
    Synonym: mema
    Antonym: ne
    pala ma ilamothat house is large
    oma mathose children

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

ma

  1. then
    toi ipongi, ma tasagal yoif it rains, then I won't go

References edit

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[13], Pacific linguistics

Wolof edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. me (first-person singular object pronoun)

See also edit

Wutunhua edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Probably related to Mandarin (me).

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. what (interrogative)
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Mandarin ().

Noun edit

ma

  1. horse

References edit

  • Juha Janhunen, Marja Peltomaa, Erika Sandman, Xiawu Dongzhou (2008) Wutun (LINCOM's Descriptive Grammar Series), volume 466, LINCOM Europa, →ISBN
  • Erika Sandman (2016) A Grammar of Wutun[14], University of Helsinki (PhD), →ISBN

Xhosa edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-jɪ́ma.

Verb edit

-̂ma

  1. (intransitive) to halt
  2. (intransitive) to stop

Inflection edit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms edit

Yola edit

Verb edit

ma

  1. Alternative form of mye (may)
    • 1927, “THE FORTH MAN'S GRACE AFTER A SCANTY DINNER”, in THE ANCIENT DIALECT OF THE BARONIES OF FORTH AND BARGY, COUNTY WEXFORD, page 137, line 2:
      When ye Lord plaase, He ma mend this,
      [When the Lord please, He may mend this,]

References edit

  • Kathleen A. Browne (1927) The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Sixth Series, Vol.17 No.2, Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, page 137

Zazaki edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ma

  1. we; us (first-person plural personal pronoun)

Zhuang edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Tai *ʰmaːᴬ (dog). Cognate with Thai หมา (mǎa), Northern Thai ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ, Lao ໝາ (), ᦖᦱ (ṁaa), Tai Dam ꪢꪱ, Shan မႃ (mǎa), Tai Nüa ᥛᥣᥴ (máa), Aiton မႃ (), Ahom 𑜉𑜠 (ma), Saek หม่า.

Noun edit

ma (classifier duz, Sawndip forms 𬌫 or or 𬍄 or 𰡪 or or or or 𭸱, 1957–1982 spelling ma)

  1. dog
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Tai *ʰmaːᴬ (to come). Cognate with Thai มา (maa), Northern Thai ᨾᩣ (ma), Lao ມາ (), ᦙᦱ (maa), Tai Nüa ᥛᥣᥰ (mäa), Shan မႃး (máa), Aiton မႃ (), Ahom 𑜉𑜠 (ma) or 𑜉𑜡 () or 𑜉𑜡𑜠 (māa).

Verb edit

ma (Sawndip forms or ⿸广末 or or or ⿸广处 or 𮜃 or ⿰么馬 or ⿰㐅馬 or 𫹞 or , 1957–1982 spelling ma)

  1. to come back; to return
See also edit

Zulu edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-jɪ́ma.

Verb edit

-má

  1. (intransitive) to stand, to be standing
  2. (intransitive) to stand still, to not move
  3. (intransitive) to stop, to come to a standstill, to halt

Inflection edit

Tone H, latent i
Infinitive ukuma
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuma ukungemi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular yima -me
Plural yimani -meni
Stative
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngimi engimi ngimi angimi engingemi ngingemi
2nd singular umi omi umi awumi ongemi ungemi
1st plural simi esimi simi asimi esingemi singemi
2nd plural nimi enimi nimi animi eningemi ningemi
Class 1 umi omi emi akemi ongemi engemi
Class 2 bemi abemi bemi abemi abangemi bengemi
Class 3 umi omi umi awumi ongemi ongemi
Class 4 imi emi imi ayimi engemi ingemi
Class 5 limi elimi limi alimi elingemi lingemi
Class 6 emi emi emi awemi angemi engemi
Class 7 simi esimi simi asimi esingemi singemi
Class 8 zimi ezimi zimi azimi ezingemi zingemi
Class 9 imi emi imi ayimi engemi ingemi
Class 10 zimi ezimi zimi azimi ezingemi zingemi
Class 11 lumi olumi lumi alumi olungemi lungemi
Class 14 bumi obumi bumi abumi obungemi bungemi
Class 15 kumi okumi kumi akumi okungemi kungemi
Class 17 kumi okumi kumi akumi okungemi kungemi
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyema, ngima engimayo, engima ngima angimi engingemi ngingemi
2nd singular uyema, uma omayo, oma uma awumi ongemi ungemi
1st plural siyema, sima esimayo, esima sima asimi esingemi singemi
2nd plural niyema, nima enimayo, enima nima animi eningemi ningemi
Class 1 uyema, uma omayo, oma ema akemi ongemi engemi
Class 2 bayema, bema abemayo, abema bema abemi abangemi bengemi
Class 3 uyema, uma omayo, oma uma awumi ongemi ungemi
Class 4 iyema, ima emayo, ema ima ayimi engemi ingemi
Class 5 liyema, lima elimayo, elima lima alimi elingemi lingemi
Class 6 ayema, ema emayo, ema ema awemi angemi engemi
Class 7 siyema, sima esimayo, esima sima asimi esingemi singemi
Class 8 ziyema, zima ezimayo, ezima zima azimi ezingemi zingemi
Class 9 iyema, ima emayo, ema ima ayimi engemi ingemi
Class 10 ziyema, zima ezimayo, ezima zima azimi ezingemi zingemi
Class 11 luyema, luma olumayo, oluma luma alumi olungemi lungemi
Class 14 buyema, buma obumayo, obuma buma abumi obungemi bungemi
Class 15 kuyema, kuma okumayo, okuma kuma akumi okungemi kungemi
Class 17 kuyema, kuma okumayo, okuma kuma akumi okungemi kungemi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngimile, ngimē engimile, engimē ngimile, ngimē angimanga engingemanga ngingemanga
2nd singular umile, umē omile, omē umile, umē awumanga ongemanga ungemanga
1st plural simile, simē esimile, esimē simile, simē asimanga esingemanga singemanga
2nd plural nimile, nimē enimile, enimē nimile, nimē animanga eningemanga ningemanga
Class 1 umile, umē omile, omē emile, emē akemanga ongemanga engemanga
Class 2 bemile, bemē abemile, abemē bemile, bemē abemanga abangemanga bengemanga
Class 3 umile, umē omile, omē umile, umē awumanga ongemanga ungemanga
Class 4 imile, imē emile, emē imile, imē ayimanga engemanga ingemanga
Class 5 limile, limē elimile, elimē limile, limē alimanga elingemanga lingemanga
Class 6 emile, emē emile, emē emile, emē awemanga angemanga engemanga
Class 7 simile, simē esimile, esimē simile, simē asimanga esingemanga singemanga
Class 8 zimile, zimē ezimile, ezimē zimile, zimē azimanga ezingemanga zingemanga
Class 9 imile, imē emile, emē imile, imē ayimanga engemanga ingemanga
Class 10 zimile, zimē ezimile, ezimē zimile, zimē azimanga ezingemanga zingemanga
Class 11 lumile, lumē olumile, olumē lumile, lumē alumanga olungemanga lungemanga
Class 14 bumile, bumē obumile, obumē bumile, bumē abumanga obungemanga bungemanga
Class 15 kumile, kumē okumile, okumē kumile, kumē akumanga okungemanga kungemanga
Class 17 kumile, kumē okumile, okumē kumile, kumē akumanga okungemanga kungemanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāma engāma ngāma angimanga engingemanga ngingemanga
2nd singular wāma owāma wāma awumanga ongemanga ungemanga
1st plural sāma esāma sāma asimanga esingemanga singemanga
2nd plural nāma enāma nāma animanga eningemanga ningemanga
Class 1 wāma owāma āma akemanga ongemanga engemanga
Class 2 bāma abāma bāma abemanga abangemanga bengemanga
Class 3 wāma owāma wāma awumanga ongemanga ungemanga
Class 4 yāma eyāma yāma ayimanga engemanga ingemanga
Class 5 lāma elāma lāma alimanga elingemanga lingemanga
Class 6 āma āma āma awemanga angemanga engemanga
Class 7 sāma esāma sāma asimanga esingemanga singemanga
Class 8 zāma ezāma zāma azimanga ezingemanga zingemanga
Class 9 yāma eyāma yāma ayimanga engemanga ingemanga
Class 10 zāma ezāma zāma azimanga ezingemanga zingemanga
Class 11 lwāma olwāma lwāma alumanga olungemanga lungemanga
Class 14 bāma obāma bāma abumanga obungemanga bungemanga
Class 15 kwāma okwāma kwāma akumanga okungemanga kungemanga
Class 17 kwāma okwāma kwāma akumanga okungemanga kungemanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingema ngingema ngingeme ngingeme
2nd singular ungema ungema ungeme ungeme
1st plural singema singema singeme singeme
2nd plural ningema ningema ningeme ningeme
Class 1 angema engema angeme engeme
Class 2 bangema bengema bangeme bengeme
Class 3 ungema ungema ungeme ungeme
Class 4 ingema ingema ingeme ingeme
Class 5 lingema lingema lingeme lingeme
Class 6 angema engema angeme engeme
Class 7 singema singema singeme singeme
Class 8 zingema zingema zingeme zingeme
Class 9 ingema ingema ingeme ingeme
Class 10 zingema zingema zingeme zingeme
Class 11 lungema lungema lungeme lungeme
Class 14 bungema bungema bungeme bungeme
Class 15 kungema kungema kungeme kungeme
Class 17 kungema kungema kungeme kungeme
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokuma engizokuma ngizokuma angizukuma engingezukuma ngingezukuma
2nd singular uzokuma ozokuma uzokuma awuzukuma ongezukuma ungezukuma
1st plural sizokuma esizokuma sizokuma asizukuma esingezukuma singezukuma
2nd plural nizokuma enizokuma nizokuma anizukuma eningezukuma ningezukuma
Class 1 uzokuma ozokuma ezokuma akazukuma ongezukuma engezukuma
Class 2 bazokuma abazokuma bezokuma abazukuma abangezukuma bengezukuma
Class 3 uzokuma ozokuma uzokuma awuzukuma ongezukuma ungezukuma
Class 4 izokuma ezokuma izokuma ayizukuma engezukuma ingezukuma
Class 5 lizokuma elizokuma lizokuma alizukuma elingezukuma lingezukuma
Class 6 azokuma azokuma ezokuma awazukuma angezukuma engezukuma
Class 7 sizokuma esizokuma sizokuma asizukuma esingezukuma singezukuma
Class 8 zizokuma ezizokuma zizokuma azizukuma ezingezukuma zingezukuma
Class 9 izokuma ezokuma izokuma ayizukuma engezukuma ingezukuma
Class 10 zizokuma ezizokuma zizokuma azizukuma ezingezukuma zingezukuma
Class 11 luzokuma oluzokuma luzokuma aluzukuma olungezukuma lungezukuma
Class 14 buzokuma obuzokuma buzokuma abuzukuma obungezukuma bungezukuma
Class 15 kuzokuma okuzokuma kuzokuma akuzukuma okungezukuma kungezukuma
Class 17 kuzokuma okuzokuma kuzokuma akuzukuma okungezukuma kungezukuma
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokuma engiyokuma ngiyokuma angiyukuma engingeyukuma ngingeyukuma
2nd singular uyokuma oyokuma uyokuma awuyukuma ongeyukuma ungeyukuma
1st plural siyokuma esiyokuma siyokuma asiyukuma esingeyukuma singeyukuma
2nd plural niyokuma eniyokuma niyokuma aniyukuma eningeyukuma ningeyukuma
Class 1 uyokuma oyokuma eyokuma akayukuma ongeyukuma engeyukuma
Class 2 bayokuma abayokuma beyokuma abayukuma abangeyukuma bengeyukuma
Class 3 uyokuma oyokuma uyokuma awuyukuma ongeyukuma ungeyukuma
Class 4 iyokuma eyokuma iyokuma ayiyukuma engeyukuma ingeyukuma
Class 5 liyokuma eliyokuma liyokuma aliyukuma elingeyukuma lingeyukuma
Class 6 ayokuma ayokuma eyokuma awayukuma angeyukuma engeyukuma
Class 7 siyokuma esiyokuma siyokuma asiyukuma esingeyukuma singeyukuma
Class 8 ziyokuma eziyokuma ziyokuma aziyukuma ezingeyukuma zingeyukuma
Class 9 iyokuma eyokuma iyokuma ayiyukuma engeyukuma ingeyukuma
Class 10 ziyokuma eziyokuma ziyokuma aziyukuma ezingeyukuma zingeyukuma
Class 11 luyokuma oluyokuma luyokuma aluyukuma olungeyukuma lungeyukuma
Class 14 buyokuma obuyokuma buyokuma abuyukuma obungeyukuma bungeyukuma
Class 15 kuyokuma okuyokuma kuyokuma akuyukuma okungeyukuma kungeyukuma
Class 17 kuyokuma okuyokuma kuyokuma akuyukuma okungeyukuma kungeyukuma
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngime ngingemi
2nd singular ume ungemi
1st plural sime singemi
2nd plural nime ningemi
Class 1 eme angemi
Class 2 beme bangemi
Class 3 ume ungemi
Class 4 ime ingemi
Class 5 lime lingemi
Class 6 eme angemi
Class 7 sime singemi
Class 8 zime zingemi
Class 9 ime ingemi
Class 10 zime zingemi
Class 11 lume lungemi
Class 14 bume bungemi
Class 15 kume kungemi
Class 17 kume kungemi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngema ngangema, angema, angangema
2nd singular wema wangema, awema, awangema
1st plural sema sangema, asema, asangema
2nd plural nema nangema, anema, anangema
Class 1 wema wangema, akema, akangema
Class 2 bema bangema, abema, abangema
Class 3 wema wangema, awema, awangema
Class 4 yema yangema, ayema, ayangema
Class 5 lema langema, alema, alangema
Class 6 ema angema, awema, awangema
Class 7 sema sangema, asema, asangema
Class 8 zema zangema, azema, azangema
Class 9 yema yangema, ayema, ayangema
Class 10 zema zangema, azema, azangema
Class 11 lwema lwangema, alwema, alwangema
Class 14 bema bangema, abema, abangema
Class 15 kwema kwangema, akwema, akwangema
Class 17 kwema kwangema, akwema, akwangema

Derived terms edit

References edit