Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai BA.png
U+3070, ば
HIRAGANA LETTER BA
Composition: [U+306F] + ◌゙ [U+3099]

[U+306F]
Hiragana
[U+3071]

JapaneseEdit

Stroke order
 

Etymology 1Edit

The hiragana character (ha) with a dakuten ().

PronunciationEdit

SyllableEdit

(romaji ba)

  1. The hiragana syllable (ba). Its equivalent in katakana is (ba).
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū, completed 759 C.E..[1]

Originally an extension of the topic particle (wa),[2] for which the Old Japanese pronunciation is reconstructed as */pa/. The pa changes to ba as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

(-ba

  1. In Modern Japanese, attaches to the kateikei, and in Classical Japanese, attaches to the mizenkei, to express the hypothetical condition: if
    (あめ)()(えん)(そく)(ちゅう)()する。
    Ame ga fureba ensoku o chūshi suru.
    If it rains, we will suspend our trip.
    (いそ)(まわ)isogaba mawareIf you rush, you'll go round → more haste, less speed
  2. In Modern Japanese, attaches to the kateikei, and in Classical Japanese, attaches to the izenkei, to express the precondition for something to happen: if; when
    (あめ)()(みち)()れる。
    Ame ga fureba michi ga nureru.
    The road gets wet when it rains.
    • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      それを()(さん)(すん)ばかりなる(ひと)いと(うつく)しうて()たり。
      Sore o mireba, sansun bakari naru hito ito utsukushūte itari.
      When he looked at it, there sat a very lovely human being about three sun long.
    • 2007, yura (lyrics), 神前暁 (music), “キラメキラリ”, in THE IDOLM@STER MASTER ARTIST 02 高槻やよい:
      ()(ちゅう)から()()(きゅう)(なが)(ぼし)
      uchū kara mireba chikyū mo nagareboshi
      If you see from the universe the earth is also a shooting star
  3. In the form …ば…ほど (… ba … hodo): the more …, the more
    (まな)(まな)ぶほど、(なに)()らなかった(こと)()づく
    Manabeba manabu hodo, nani mo shiranakatta koto ni kizuku
    The more I learned, the more I felt I didn't know anything.
  4. Links sentences parallel in meaning. The sentences usually incorporate a (mo):and
    ()(ほん)()もできれ(えい)()もできる
    nihongo mo dekireba eigo mo dekiru
    to be able to speak both Japanese and English
  5. (archaic) In the form mizenkei + (ba) + meireikei on the same verb: it doesn't matter if …; may as well
    ()()shinaba shineI might as well die.
  6. (archaic) In Modern Japanese, attaches to the kateikei, and in Classical Japanese, attaches to the izenkei, to express the reason or cause: because; as
    (あめ)()(うん)(どう)(かい)(ちゅう)()せり。
    Ame fureba undōkai wa chūshi seri.
    The sports meeting is suspended due to rain.
    • 1901, 慶應義塾, 修身要領
      (けっ)(こん)(じん)(せい)(じゅう)(だい)()なれ(はい)(ぐう)(せん)(たく)(もっと)(しん)(ちょう)ならざる(べか)らず
      kekkon wa jinsei no jūdaiji nareba haigū no sentaku wa motto mo shinchō narazaru bekarazu
      Since marriage is a major event in life, the choice of a spouse has to be the most cautious.
    • 1904, 芳賀矢一, 中等教科明治文典:
      (だい)(ろく)(かつ)(よう)(けい)の「()ね」は(めい)(れい)をいふときに(もち)ゐる(かたち)なれ(めい)(れい)(けい)といふ。
      Dairoku katsuyōkei no “shine” wa meirei o iu toki ni mochiiru katachi nareba meireikei to iu.
      The sixth conjugated form shine is the form used when expressing a command, so it's called the imperative form.
Usage notesEdit
Classical Japanese Modern Japanese
Hypothetical condition ("if, suppose that") 未然形 (mizenkei) + ば 仮定形 (kateikei) + ば
Precondition ("if, provided that, when, whenever") 已然形 (izenkei) + ば 仮定形 (kateikei) + ば
Reason or cause ("since, as, because") 已然形 (izenkei) + ば -

This word is morphologically an inflectional suffix. It is classified as 助詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary word; particle) in traditional Japanese grammar.

SynonymsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
2
[noun] a place
[noun] (physics) a field
[counter] acts, sections of a play
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.
For a list of all kanji read as , not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as ば.)

Etymology 4Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entries.
2
[affix] horse
S
[affix] old woman, crone
[affix] Used in Sanskrit transliterations
S
[affix] abuse; insult
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above Sino-Japanese terms.
For a list of all kanji read as , not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as ば.)

Etymology 5Edit

Contraction of をば (o ba), itself composed of the object particle (o) + contrastive and emphatic particle (wa), which voices to (ba) due to rendaku (連濁).[3][4]

First cited to a text from the early 1800s.[3]

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

(ba

  1. [from early 1800s] (dialectal) object marker
    Synonym: (standard Japanese) (o)
Usage notesEdit

May be encountered more commonly where the portion before the particle ends in an /o/ sound or the nasal (n), phonological contexts where the /o/ sound of the particle (o) would be expected to contract.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, →ISBN
  4. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN