See also: , , and
U+516B, 八
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-516B

[U+516A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+516C]
U+2F0B, ⼋
KANGXI RADICAL EIGHT

[U+2F0A]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F0C]
U+3227, ㈧
PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH EIGHT

[U+3226]
Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
[U+3228]
U+3287, ㊇
CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH EIGHT

[U+3286]
Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
[U+3288]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
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Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 12, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 竹人 (HO), four-corner 80000, composition 丿(GHT) or 丿(JKV))

  1. Kangxi radical #12, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №16

Usage notes edit

Minor strokes in the shape of or , as in the top of 𠔉 and , can be referred by this radical (but in many cases, it is a false friend). These are often written as in modern texts. Compare /, and different forms of /.

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 126, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1450
  • Dae Jaweon: page 274, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 241, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+516B

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Hanjian (compiled in Song) Guwen Sishengyun (compiled in Song) Jizhuan Guwen Yunhai (compiled in Song) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing) Kangxi Dictionary (compiled in Qing)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Transcribed ancient scripts Transcribed ancient scripts Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script Ming typeface
                             





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : 八 is two bent lines indicating the original meaning of "to divide". This character is later borrowed to mean "eight" because of homonymy, making the original meaning obsolete (now represented by and ).

Etymology 1 edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms financial

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-r-gjat (eight). Compare Tibetan བརྒྱད (brgyad).

Pronunciation edit


Note: bá - a less common tone sandhi variant of 八 when it occurs before a departing-tone character, e.g. 八路 (Bālù).
Note:
  • poeh/peh/piē - vernacular;
  • pat - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (75)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter peat
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pˠɛt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/pᵚæt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/pæt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pəɨt̚/
Li
Rong
/pɛt̚/
Wang
Li
/pæt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pat̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ba
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
baat3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pɛt ›
Old
Chinese
/*pˁret/
English eight

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 89
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*preːd/

Definitions edit

  1. eight
  2. many; numerous
  3. (printing) pearl (the smallest size of usual type, standardized as 5 point)
  4. Short for 八卦 (bāguà).
    1. to gossip (about); to stick one's nose in
    2. (Cantonese) nosey; meddling
      [Cantonese]  ―  baat3 po4 [Jyutping]  ―  nosey parker; meddling woman
  5. a surname: Ba
See also edit
Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 106 108 1012
Normal
(小寫小写)
, , , , ,
十千 (Malaysia, Singapore)
百萬百万,
(Philippines),
面桶 (Philippines)
亿 (Taiwan)
萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
Financial
(大寫大写)

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (はち) (hachi)
  • Korean: 팔(八) (pal)
  • Vietnamese: bát ()

Others:

Etymology 2 edit

trad.
simp. #

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *brat (cut apart, cut open). Cognate to (bié).

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (75)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter peat
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pˠɛt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/pᵚæt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/pæt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pəɨt̚/
Li
Rong
/pɛt̚/
Wang
Li
/pæt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pat̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ba
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
baat3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pɛt ›
Old
Chinese
/*pˁret/
English eight

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 89
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*preːd/

Definitions edit

  1. to divide; to differentiate

Etymology 3 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to know”).
(This character is a variant form of ).

References edit

Japanese edit

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  7 8 9  > 
    Cardinal :

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
はち
Grade: 1
goon
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

From Middle Chinese (MC peat). The 呉音 (goon, literally “Wu sound) reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

(はち) (hachi

  1. eight, 8

Noun edit

(はち) (hachi

  1. eight
  2. Short for 八の.
  3. Short for 八兵衛.

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese (ya), from Proto-Japonic *ya.

The ablaut form of (yo, four), which it doubles. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

() (ya

  1. eight
Derived terms edit

Coordinate terms edit

Japanese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Regular (れい) (rei)
(ゼロ) (zero)
(いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (よん) (yon)
() (shi)
() (go) (ろく) (roku) (なな) (nana)
(しち) (shichi)
(はち) (hachi) (きゅう) (kyū)
() (ku)
(じゅう) ()
Formal (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (じゅう) ()
90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
Regular (きゅう)(じゅう) (kyūjū) (ひゃく) (hyaku)
(いっ)(ぴゃく) (ippyaku)
(さん)(びゃく) (sanbyaku) (ろっ)(ぴゃく) (roppyaku) (はっ)(ぴゃく) (happyaku) (せん) (sen)
(いっ)(せん) (issen)
(さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (いち)(まん) (ichiman) (いち)(おく) (ichioku)
Formal (いち)(まん) (ichiman)
1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
(いっ)(ちょう) (itchō) (はっ)(ちょう) (hatchō) (じゅっ)(ちょう) (jutchō) (いっ)(けい) (ikkei) (ろっ)(けい) (rokkei) (はっ)(けい) (hakkei) (じゅっ)(けい) (jukkei) (ひゃっ)(けい) (hyakkei)

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Korean numbers (edit)
80
 ←  7 8 9  → 
    Native isol.: 여덟 (yeodeol)
    Native attr.: 여덟 (yeodeol)
    Sino-Korean: (pal)
    Hanja:
    Ordinal: 여덟째 (yeodeoljjae)

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC peat).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 바ᇙ〮 (Yale: pálq)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 여듧 (Yale: yètùlp) (Yale: phál)
Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 여ᄃᆞᆲ (Yale: yetolp) (Yale: phal)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 여덟 (yeodeol pal))

  1. Hanja form? of (eight).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: bát[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: bát[1][2], bắt[1][3], bớt[1]

  1. chữ Hán form of bát (eight, octo- (Sino-Vietnamese compounds)).

Compounds edit

References edit