See also:

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 196 +10, 21 strokes, cangjie input 十土竹日火 (JGHAF), 人土竹日火 (OGHAF), four-corner 47227, composition)

  1. crane (bird)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1496, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47185
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2026, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4654, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+9DB4

CantoneseEdit

HanziEdit

(simplified , Yale hok6)


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

(tazu, tsuru): the Japanese crane, Grus japonensis
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From Old Japanese.[1][2] By one analysis, this may be a compound of (ta, rice paddy, a common place where cranes can be found) +‎ (tsu, crane? large bird?). The tsu changes to dzu, modern zu due to rendaku (連濁). This tsu is probably the tsu in tsuru (see below).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • 田鶴

NounEdit

(hiragana たず, historical hiragana たづ, romaji tazu)

  1. (archaic, poetic) a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 7, poem #1199); text here
      藻苅舟 奥榜来良之 妹之嶋 形見之浦尓 翔所見
      もかりふね おきこぎくらし いもがしま かたみのうらに たづかけるみゆ
      Mo kari fune / oki kogi kurashi / Imogashima / Katami no ura ni / tazu kakeru miyu
      Rowing the seaweed-gathering boat out to sea and back again, I saw the cranes soaring by Katami inlet on Imogashima
Usage notesEdit

This reading is now reserved for poetry.[1][2]

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

(tsuru): a paper origami crane
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Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Origami crane
(tsuru): a crane 家紋 (kamon, family crest)

Given a crane's long neck and how the bird hunts, possibly related to (tsuru, vine); (tsuru, bowstring; musical instrument string); 釣る, 吊る (tsuru, to hang down; to string up; to fish). Given how cranes flock together, possibly related also to 連る (tsuru), older root form of modern verb 連れる (tsureru, to accompany). That said, 連る also appears to ultimately derive from (tsuru, vine).

Likely Altaic cognates include Proto-Turkic *durunja (crane) (whence Turkish turna), Korean 두루미 (durumi, “crane”), Mongolian тогоруу (togoruu, crane)). Compare also Hungarian daru (crane).

The reading tsuru is first seen used to mean a crane (the bird) from the late Heian period. Prior to that time, the only reading used for the bird was tazu. However, the kanji was used in the Man'yōshū as a phonetic ateji for the verb ending -tsuru, suggesting that tsuru may have already existed as an everyday term meaning a crane.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana つる, katakana ツル, romaji tsuru)

  1. a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
  2. short for 折鶴 (​orizuru): a paper crane, the archetypical origami design
  3. short for 鶴嘴 (​tsuruhashi): a pickaxe
  4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) depicting a crane
  5. a euphemism for white hair
Usage notesEdit

As with many words that name organisms, this word is often written in katakana when used in biology contexts.

Derived termsEdit
IdiomsEdit
  • 凍て鶴 (いてづる, ​itezuru): “frozen crane” → a metaphor for something stock still and unmoving, from the way a crane will freeze when hunting
SynonymsEdit
  • (crane crest): 鶴紋 (つるもん, ​tsuru mon)
  • (white hair): 白髪 (しらが, ​shiraga)

Etymology 3Edit

Old Japanese. Only found in compounds. Uncertain derivation. May be a truncation of tsuru, or an ancient form of its own. Not used in modern Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , romaji tsu)

  1. (obsolete) a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
Derived termsEdit
  • , 田鶴 (たず, ​tazu): a crane
  • 葦田鶴 (あしたず, ​ashitazu): a crane
Usage notesEdit

Appears as (zu) in compounds due to rendaku.

Etymology 4Edit

From Middle Chinese (hak). Compare modern simplified Mandarin (). Only found in compounds.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かく, romaji kaku)

  1. a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
Derived termsEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(hak) (hangeul , revised hak, McCune-Reischauer hak, Yale hak)

  1. 두루미 (durumi) crane

MandarinEdit

HanziEdit

(simplified , Pinyin (he4), Wade-Giles ho4)


Middle ChineseEdit

Han characterEdit

(*hɑk)


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hạc)

Last modified on 15 February 2014, at 21:32