See also: , , , and
U+9CE5, 鳥
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9CE5

[U+9CE4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9CE6]
U+2FC3, ⿃
KANGXI RADICAL BIRD

[U+2FC2]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FC4]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 196, +0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 竹日卜火 (HAYF), four-corner 27327, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #196, .

Derived characters edit

See also edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1480, character 52
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 46634
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2012, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4613, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9CE5

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.
 

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
     

Pictogram (象形): a bird with a dangling tail.

Compare , which is very similar, of similar origin, and , which originated from a similar image of a bird, but is today rather more abstract and less recognizable. Compare to Egyptian 𓄿

Etymology edit

Originally pronounced with a /t-/ initial (compare (OC *tuːwʔ, “island”)). In many dialects, it changed to a /n-/ initial to avoid homophony with the vulgar word (diǎo, “penis”), which may ultimately have developed from the sense “bird”. Birds/fowl are characteristically associated with Chinese slang for genitalia; compare (“sparrow > penis”) and (“chicken > penis”).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) hypothesised that the /n-/ initial form for “bird” may be unrelated to the /t-/ form. Instead, it may be connected with the Tai-Kadai word for bird; compare Proto-Tai *C̬.nokᴰ (bird), whence Thai นก (nók).

The /t-/ form may be derived from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *daw (bird), cognate with Proto-Karen *thoᴮ (bird) and Proto-Bodo-Garo *tao² (bird).

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note:
  • tiâu - vernacular;
  • niâu - literary.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • cēu - vernacular;
    • nēu - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chiáu - vernacular;
    • niáu - literary.
    Note:
    • ziao2 - Shantou;
    • ziou2 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • (Shanghainese) 5tiau, (Suzhounese) 3tiau - colloquial;
    • (Shanghainese) 5gniau, (Suzhounese) 3gniau - literary and colloquial (younger speakers).
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • diau3 - vernacular;
    • nyiau3 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /niɑu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /niau²¹³/
    Tianjin /niɑu¹³/
    Jinan /tiɔ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /niɔ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /niau⁵³/
    Xi'an /niau⁵³/
    Xining /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /niɔ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ȵiɔ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /ȵiɔ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /niau⁴²/
    Chengdu /ȵiau⁵³/
    Guiyang /niao⁴²/
    Kunming /niɔ⁵³/
    Nanjing /liɔo²¹²/
    Hefei /liɔ⁵⁵/
    /tiɔ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /niau⁵³/
    Pingyao /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /niɔ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /tiɔ⁵³/
    /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Suzhou /ȵiæ⁵¹/
    /tiæ⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ȵa³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /niɔ³⁵/ 飛~
    /tiɔ³⁵/ 啄木~
    Tunxi /liun²⁴/
    /lin²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵiau⁴¹/
    /tiau⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /tiaɯ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /tiau⁴⁴/ ~兒
    /tiau³¹/ 罵人話
    Taoyuan /ŋiɑu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /niu²³/
    Nanning /tiu³⁵/
    /niu²⁴/
    Hong Kong /niu¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiau⁵³/
    /niau⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɛu³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niau²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siau⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡siau²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (93)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Baxter tewX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /teuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /teuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /teuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /tɛwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /teuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /tieuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tieuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    diǎo
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    diu2
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    niǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tewX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˁiwʔ/
    English bird

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9511
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tɯːwʔ/

    Definitions edit

    1. bird (Classifier: m;  m)
        ―  yǎngniǎo  ―  to breed birds
    2. (slang, dialectal) to pay attention; to heed; to take notice of
        ―  Wǒ cái bù niǎo tā.  ―  I don't give a damn about him.
    3. (vulgar, chiefly Taiwan) unpleasant thing
      什麼?!什么?!  ―  shénme niǎo?!  ―  What the fuck?!
    4. (vulgar, chiefly Taiwan) inferior or objectionable (a general term of disparagement)
      事情事情  ―  Zhè shìqíng tài niǎo le!  ―  This thing really sucks!
    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    • Thai: เจี๊ยว (jíao)

    Pronunciation 2 edit


    Definitions edit

    1. (vulgar) Alternative form of (diǎo)
      1. penis
      2. (intensifier) damned; goddamn
          ―  Nǐ zhè diǎorén!  ―  You fucking prick!

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (tori): various kinds of birds.
    Kanji in this term
    とり
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨to2ri⟩/tori/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *təri. Probably cognate with Middle Korean ᄃᆞᆰ (tolk), modern Korean (dak, fowl; chicken).

    May also be related to the Japanese verb 飛ぶ (tobu, to fly).

    Alternative forms edit

    • (usually a chicken):
    • (rare)

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (とり) (tori

    1. a bird
      • 1999 July 5, “タクヒ [Takuhi]”, in BOOSTER 3, Konami:
        このトリ(あらわ)れた(とき)は、(なに)()(きつ)(こと)()こる(まえ)ぶれ。
        Kono tori ga arawareta toki wa, nani ka fukitsu na koto ga okoru maebure.
        This bird brings bad luck to wherever it comes.
      • 1999 August 26, “セイント・バード [Saint Bird]”, in BOOSTER 4, Konami:
        ()(じょう)()(なが)(とり)(ぜん)(しん)から(せい)なる(ひかり)(はっ)する。
        Hijō ni o no nagai tori. Zenshin kara seinaru hikari o hassuru.
        A bird with an unusually long tail. It illuminates with holy light.
    2. a chicken
    3. fowl or chicken meat
    Derived terms edit

    Proper noun edit

    (とり) (Tori

    1. a surname
    2. a unisex given name

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨to2ri⟩⟨*to2/to/

    From Old Japanese.[4][5] Appears to be a shift from tori above.

    Pronunciation edit

    • The pitch accent is determined by the entire word.

    Prefix edit

    () (to-

    1. a bird
    2. (more specifically) a chicken
    Usage notes edit

    Appears in old compounds. Does not appear to be productive in modern Japanese.

    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ Steven D. Carter (1991) Traditional Japanese Poetry: An Anthology, illustrated edition, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 225
    4. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    5. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC tewX).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 됴ᇢ〯 (Yale: tyǒw)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] 새〯 (Yale: sǎy) 됴〮 (Yale: tyó)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (sae jo))

    1. Hanja form? of (bird). [affix]

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. bird
    2. chicken

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term
    とぅい
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *tori, from Proto-Japonic *təri. Cognate with Japanese (tori).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (とぅい) (tui

    1. bird
    2. chicken

    References edit

    • とぅい【鳥】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: điểu, đeo, đéo, đẽo

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.