See also: , , , and
U+9CE5, 鳥
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9CE5

[U+9CE4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9CE6]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 196, +0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 竹日卜火 (HAYF), four-corner 27327, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #196, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1480, character 52
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 46634
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2012, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4613, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9CE5

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
     

Pictogram (象形): a bird with a dangling tail.

Compare , which is very similar, of similar origin, and , which originated from a similar image of a bird, but is today rather more abstract and less recognizable.

EtymologyEdit

Originally pronounced with a /t-/ initial (compare (OC *tuːwʔ, “island”)). In many dialects, it changed to a /n-/ initial to avoid homophony with the vulgar word (diǎo, “penis”), which may ultimately have developed from the sense “bird”. Birds/fowl are characteristically associated with Chinese slangs for genitalia; compare (“sparrow > penis”) and (“chicken > penis”).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) hypothesised that the /n-/ initial form for “bird” may be unrelated to the /t-/ form. Instead, it may be connected with the Tai-Kadai word for bird; confer Proto-Tai *C̬.nokᴰ (bird), whence Thai นก (nók).

The /t-/ form may be derived from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *daw (bird), cognate with Proto-Karen *thoᴮ (bird) and Proto-Bodo-Garo *daw/dow (bird).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • tiâu - vernacular;
  • niâu - literary.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • cēu - vernacular;
    • nēu - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chiáu - vernacular;
    • niáu - literary.
    Note:
    • ziao2 - Shantou;
    • ziou2 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 2tiau - vernacular;
    • 2'nyau - literary.
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • diau3 - vernacular;
    • nyiau3 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /niɑu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /niau²¹³/
    Tianjin /niɑu¹³/
    Jinan /tiɔ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /niɔ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /niau⁵³/
    Xi'an /niau⁵³/
    Xining /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /niɔ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ȵiɔ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /ȵiɔ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /niau⁴²/
    Chengdu /ȵiau⁵³/
    Guiyang /niao⁴²/
    Kunming /niɔ⁵³/
    Nanjing /liɔo²¹²/
    Hefei /liɔ⁵⁵/
    /tiɔ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /niau⁵³/
    Pingyao /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /niɔ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /tiɔ⁵³/
    /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Suzhou /ȵiæ⁵¹/
    /tiæ⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ȵa³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /niɔ³⁵/ 飛~
    /tiɔ³⁵/ 啄木~
    Tunxi /liun²⁴/
    /lin²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵiau⁴¹/
    /tiau⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /tiaɯ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /tiau⁴⁴/ ~兒
    /tiau³¹/ 罵人話
    Taoyuan /ŋiɑu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /niu²³/
    Nanning /tiu³⁵/
    /niu²⁴/
    Hong Kong /niu¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiau⁵³/
    /niau⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɛu³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niau²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siau⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡siau²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (93)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /teuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /teuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /teuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /tɛwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /teuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /tieuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tieuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    diǎo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    niǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tewX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˁiwʔ/
    English bird

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9511
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tɯːwʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. bird (Classifier: m;  m)
      /   ―  yǎngniǎo  ―  to breed birds
    2. (dialectal) to pay attention; to heed; to take notice of
    3. (dialectal) already
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Thai: เจี๊ยว (jíao)

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (vulgar) Alternative form of (diǎo).
      1. penis
      2. (intensifier) damned; goddamn
        /   ―  Nǐ zhè diǎo rén!  ―  You fucking prick!

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (tori): various kinds of birds.
    Kanji in this term
    とり
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨to2ri⟩/tori/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *təri. Probably cognate with Middle Korean ᄃᆞᆰ (tolk), modern Korean (dak, fowl; chicken).

    May also be related to the Japanese verb 飛ぶ (tobu, to fly).

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (usually a chicken):
    • (rare)

    NounEdit

    (とり) (tori

    1. a bird
      • 1999 July 5, “タクヒ [Takuhi]”, in BOOSTER 3, Konami:
        このトリ(あらわ)れた(とき)は、(なに)()(きつ)(こと)()こる(まえ)ぶれ。
        Kono tori ga arawareta toki wa, nani ka fukitsu na koto ga okoru maebure.
        This bird brings bad luck to wherever it comes.
      • 1999 August 26, “セイント・バード [Saint Bird]”, in BOOSTER 4, Konami:
        ()(じょう)()(なが)(とり)(ぜん)(しん)から(せい)なる(ひかり)(はっ)する。
        Hijō ni o no nagai tori. Zenshin kara seinaru hikari o hassuru.
        A bird with an unusually long tail. It illuminates with holy light.
    2. a chicken
    3. fowl or chicken meat
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (とり) (Tori

    1. a surname​.
    2. a unisex given name

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨to2ri⟩⟨*to2/to/

    From Old Japanese.[4][5] Appears to be a shift from tori above.

    PronunciationEdit

    PrefixEdit

    () (to-

    1. a bird
    2. (more specifically) a chicken
    Usage notesEdit

    Appears in old compounds. Does not appear to be productive in modern Japanese.

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ Steven D. Carter (1991) Traditional Japanese Poetry: An Anthology, illustrated edition, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 225
    4. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    5. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (sae jo))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (điểu, đeo, đéo, đẽo)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.