U+9CE5, 鳥
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9CE5

[U+9CE4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9CE6]
See also: , , , and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 196 +0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 竹日卜火 (HAYF), four-corner 27327)

  1. Kangxi radical #196, (bird).

SynonymsEdit

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1480, character 52
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 46634
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2012, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4613, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9CE5

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Small seal script
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*tuːwʔ
*taːwʔ
*rtɯːw, *rtɯːw, *tjiw
*tɯːw
*tɯːwʔ
*tɯːwʔ, *tɯːws
*tɯːws

Pictogram (象形): a bird with a dangling tail.

Compare , which is very similar, of similar origin, and , which originated from a similar image of a bird, but is today rather more abstract and less recognizable.

Compare also (“horse”), whose current form is similar (graphically, for claws/legs).

EtymologyEdit

Originally pronounced with a /t-/ initial (compare (OC *tuːwʔ, “island”)). In many dialects, it changed to a /n-/ initial to avoid homophony with the vulgar word (diǎo, “penis”), which may have developed from the sense “bird” eventually. Birds/fowl are characteristically associated with Chinese slangs for genitalia; compare (“sparrow > penis”) and (“chicken > penis”).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) hypothesised that the /n-/ initial form for “bird” may be unrelated to the /t-/ form. Instead, it may be connected with the Tai-Kadai word for bird; confer Proto-Tai *C̬.nokᴰ(bird), whence Thai นก(nók).

The /t-/ form may be derived from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *daw(bird), cognate with Proto-Karen *thoᴮ (“bird”) and Proto-Bodo-Garo *daw/dow (“bird”).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • cēu - vernacular;
  • nēu - literary.
Note:
  • chiáu - vernacular;
  • niáu - literary.
Note:
  • 2tiau - vernacular;
  • 2'nyau - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /niɑu²¹⁴/
Harbin /niau²¹³/
Tianjin /niɑu¹³/
Jinan /tiɔ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /niɔ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /niau⁵³/
Xi'an /niau⁵³/
Xining /ȵiɔ⁵³/
Yinchuan /niɔ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ȵiɔ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ȵiɔ⁵¹/
Wuhan /niau⁴²/
Chengdu /ȵiau⁵³/
Guiyang /niao⁴²/
Kunming /niɔ⁵³/
Nanjing /liɔo²¹²/
Hefei /liɔ⁵⁵/
/tiɔ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /niau⁵³/
Pingyao /ȵiɔ⁵³/
Hohhot /niɔ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /tiɔ⁵³/
/ȵiɔ⁵³/
Suzhou /ȵiæ⁵¹/
/tiæ⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ȵiɔ⁵³/
Wenzhou /ȵa³⁵/
Hui Shexian /niɔ³⁵/ 飛~
/tiɔ³⁵/ 啄木~
Tunxi /liun²⁴/
/lin²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵiau⁴¹/
/tiau⁴¹/
Xiangtan /tiaɯ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛu²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /tiau⁴⁴/ ~兒
/tiau³¹/ 罵人話
Taoyuan /ŋiɑu²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /niu²³/
Nanning /tiu³⁵/
/niu²⁴/
Hong Kong /niu¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiau⁵³/
/niau⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɛu³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niau²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siau⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡siau²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (93)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/teuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/teuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/teuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tɛwX/
Li
Rong
/teuX/
Wang
Li
/tieuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tieuX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
diǎo
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
niǎo
Middle
Chinese
‹ tewX ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˤiwʔ/
English bird

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9511
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tɯːwʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. bird   (Classifier: m; m)
    /   ―  yǎngniǎo  ―  to breed birds
  2. (dialectal) to pay attention; to heed; to take notice of

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. (vulgar) Alternative form of (diǎo, “penis”).
  2. (intensifier, vulgar) damned; goddamn
    /   ―  Nǐ zhè diǎo rén!  ―  You fucking prick!

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
(tori): various kinds of birds.
Kanji in this term
とり
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Probably cognate with Middle Korean ᄃᆞᆰ(tolk), modern Korean (dak, fowl; chicken).

May also be related to the Japanese verb 飛ぶ(tobu, to fly).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana とり, romaji tori)

  1. a bird
  2. a chicken
  3. fowl or chicken meat

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(jo) (hangeul , revised jo, McCune-Reischauer cho, Yale co)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(điểu, đeo, đéo, đẽo)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.