Wiktionary:About Indonesian

BasicsEdit

A very simple exampleEdit

This is a simple entry for the word kamus (dictionary), and shows the most fundamental elements of an article:

==Indonesian==

===Etymology===
From {{inh|id|ms|kamus}}, from {{der|id|ar|قاموس|t=dictionary, lexicon}}.

===Pronunciation===
* {{IPA|id|/ka.mus/}}
* {{hyphenation|id|ka|mus}}

===Noun===
{{head|id|noun}}

# [[dictionary]]

===Further reading===
* {{R:KBBI Daring}}

----

GuidelinesEdit

  • Wiktionary may be used by learners who are not proficient in Indonesian.
  • Only entries that fulfill the criteria for inclusion can be created.
  • Lemma: The lemma form in Indonesian is the kata dasar (lexical stem) in Latin script based on the the latest spelling standard (2015 Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia).
  • Spelling: In principle, the latest spelling standard, which is 2015 Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia, is used to determine which variant spelling to place a word’s definition at.
  • Pronunciation: The pronunciation may be entered in both phonemic (using / /) and phonetic form (using [ ]).

Lemma entriesEdit

A lemma is the canonical form of an inflected word; i.e., the form usually found as the headword in a dictionary, such as the nominative singular of a noun, the bare infinitive of a verb, etc. In Indonesian, the lemma is kata dasar (lexical stem). For example, beli (buy) is a lemma, but membelikan is not a lemma.

As Indonesian is written only in the Latin script, the lemma entry in Indonesian is the kata dasar (lexical stem) in Latin script using the latest spelling (2015 Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia).

The layout for lemma entries in Indonesian is based on Wiktionary:Entry layout. For non-lemma entries, see non-lemma entries for specific considerations.

Headings before the definitionsEdit

As for editing, {{also}} shall be added to current edit if necessary.

Alternative formsEdit

Alternative forms are variations of the same word kept in multiple pages. Examples include:

  • Regional variations.
  • Obsolete forms and historical variations, such as words no longer used due to spelling reforms. See spelling reforms for more.
  • Hyphenation or spacing of compounds, such as kacamata and kaca mata.
  • Variation in style such as uncertain capitalization.
  • Common misspellings.

The standard form (bentuk baku) listed in {{R:KBBI Daring}} is usually considered the standard form. Entries that are alternative forms will have templates such as these at the definition line to link the entry back to the standard form.

The "Alternative forms" header can also be listed after the part of speech, if the spelling is specific to that part of speech.

EtymologyEdit

The first header below the language heading is usually the level 3 “Etymology” header. The etymology is given right below the header without indentation. Etymology essentially shows where the word comes from. This may show the forms in other languages that underlie the word. For many modern words it may show who coined the word. If a word is derived from another in the same language by a regular rule, such as formation of an English adverb by adding “ly”, it is not necessary to repeat the complete details of the word’s origin on the page for the derived word.

Sometimes two words with different etymologies belong in the same entry because they are spelled the same (they are homographs). In such a case there will be more than one “Etymology” header, which we number. Note that in the case of multiple etymologies, all subordinate headers need to have their levels increased by 1 in order to comply with the fundamental concept of showing dependence through nesting.

Origin of Word: InheritedEdit

A significant category of words in a language are the so-called ‘native’ or ‘inherited’ words; in some languages, but not all, they form the majority of words. This means that they have developed from an earlier form of the language which may or may not have gone by the same name. The ancestor languages of Indonesian are in this order:

  1. Malay (ms)
  2. Proto-Malayic (poz-mly-pro)
  3. Proto-Malayo-Chamic (poz-mcm-pro)
  4. Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan (poz-msa-pro)
  5. Proto-Sunda-Sulawesi (poz-sus-pro)
  6. Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (poz-pro)
  7. Proto-Austronesian (map-pro)

For words with an unbroken chain of inheritance, {{inh|id|lang|WORD}} is used. If the source of the inherited word is borrowed from a nonancestral language, e.g. a Malay word borrowed from Sanskrit/Portuguese/Arabic or a Proto-Malayo-Polynesian word borrowed from Proto-Oceanic, then {{der}} is used instead of {{inh}}. See Template:inherited for a more detailed explanation.

Origin of Word: Borrowings/LoanwordEdit

Some words have been borrowed from other languages, either because of a historical occupation or co-existence, or simply through exposure to other languages. Borrowings can be ancient or recent. When words are first borrowed into a language they may still ‘seem’ foreign. After a while they become more naturalized. Eventually they seem completely native. To flag a borrowing, use {{borrowed}} or the shortcut {{bor}}. For extra consideration for borrowings/loanword, see Borrowings/Loanword below.

Specific usage of other foreign derivation templatesEdit
Word formationEdit
  • Back-formations. Words that look like a regular formation can have the formation reversed (especially, removing apparent affixes) to yield a new word. This is called back-formation, and the template {{back-form}} helps here. For example, citrum is a back-formation of citra, thus it uses {{back-form|id|citra}} in the citrum page.
  • Blends. A blend or portmanteau word is a word which was originally formed by combining two other words. For example, {{blend|id|layanan|tanpa|turun}} can be used for lantatur.
  • Calques. For calques or loan translations, it is necessary to provide the source language out of which the lexeme, compound or a phrase has been calqued. The template {{calque}} should be used. For example, the term of sekolah rakyat is a calque of 国民学校 (kokumin gakkō). Thus, it is written as {{calque|id|ja|国民学校|tr=kokumin gakkō}}.
  • Clipping use {{clipping|id|-}}

PronunciationEdit

The "Pronunciation" section includes the transcriptions, audio pronunciations, rhymes, hyphenations and homophones.

  • {{IPA|id}} followed by the transcription in the International Phonetic Alphabet is used. Phonemic transcriptions are placed between diagonal strokes (/ /) while phonetic transcriptions are placed between square brackets ([ ]).
  • If regional variations or accents exist, then {{accent|region}} (e.g. {{a|Riau-Lingga}} or {{a|Jakarta}}) is used before {{IPA|id}}.
  • Hyphenation: Hyphenation describes how a word is broken across line breaks. For example, kata (word) is hyphenated as {{hyphenation|id|ka|ta}}.
  • Homophones: List any homophones of the word in alphabetical order using {{homophone|id|term 1|term 2}}. For example, bank and bang (older brother). If a word is a homophone in a particular dialect, then |q1=Jakarta can be used to specify the dialect for that particular homophone.
  • The template {{rfp|id}} can be used to request a pronunciation in a Wiktionary entry.

CoreEdit

Part of speech and headword lineEdit

The part of speech (POS) is a descriptor like “Noun” or “Adjective”. The allowed POS are:

  • Parts of speech: Adjective, Adverb, Ambiposition, Article, Circumposition, Classifier, Conjunction, Contraction, Counter, Determiner, Interjection, Noun, Numeral, Participle, Particle, Postposition, Preposition, Pronoun, Proper noun, Verb
  • Morphemes: Circumfix, Combining form, Infix, Interfix, Prefix, Root, Suffix
  • Symbols and characters: Diacritical mark, Letter, Ligature, Number, Punctuation mark, Syllable, Symbol
  • Phrases: Phrase, Proverb, Prepositional phrase
  • Romanization and language-specific varieties.

The headword line is the line directly below the part of speech header, in which the word is repeated, along with a romanization if applicable. For example, headword line of lensa (lens) is {{head|id|noun|head=lènsa}}.

Special consideration for headwords containing "e"Edit

If the letter "e" is present in the headword, then an additional parameter |head= is required with the normal "e" replaced by one of the following:

e.g. {{head|id|verb|head=sêlèwèng}} for seleweng (to deviate).

DefinitionsEdit

The definitions are in the POS section, below the headword line. The definitions are organized as a numbered list. The numbers are generated by adding the number sign (#) at the start of each definition in the wikitext. The key terms of a definition should be linked to the respective entries.

Context labelEdit

A context label is placed before a definition to indicate any one of the following:

  1. The definition applies only to a restricted context.
  2. The definition occurs only in a limited geographic region or temporal period.
  3. The definition is only used by specialists in a particular field and not by the general population.

Many context label templates also categorize an entry into a relevant category, but they must not be used merely for categorization. Examples of recognized labels can be found in Appendix:Glossary. Context labels commonly used in Indonesian entries include the following:

QuotationsEdit

Quotations can be used to provide evidence that a word or sense exists (as required by WT:ATTEST), and to provide examples of how the word is used. For words such as alternative spellings or nonstandard compound words that are attested in Indonesian but not found in major dictionaries such as {{R:KBBI Daring}}, the addition of quotations is highly recommended.

# Definition of word in English
#* {{quote-journal|id|author=''Name of author''|title=''Title or headline''|trans-title=''English translation of title''|journal=''Name of publication, journal or newspaper''|url=''URL''|archiveurl=''Internet Archive URL''|archivedate=''Date of Internet Archive link''|date=''Date of publication of article''|text=''Sentence containing the '''word''' made bold|translation=English translation of sentence with translated '''English word''' in bold}}

Example sentencesEdit

Generally, every definition should be accompanied by a quotation illustrating the definition. If no quotation can be found, it is strongly encouraged to create an example sentence.

e.g. kementerian, the Indonesian word for ministry:

# Definition of word in English
#: {{ux|id|Example sentence (not in italics), with '''kementerian''' made bold.
|translation=An English translation of the sentence with '''ministry''' in bold.}}

Headings after the definitionsEdit

Semantic relationsEdit

Synonym, antonym, hypernym, hyponym, meronym, holonym, and troponym are examples of semantic relations. Detailed explanation and usage are covered in Wiktionary:Semantic relations.

If there are multiple parts of speech and it is not known from which part of speech a certain derivative was formed, then semantic relations will be on the same level as the part of speech headings.

Derived termsEdit

List terms in the same language that are morphological derivatives. In Indonesian, affixed word (kata berimbuhan) and compound word (kata majemuk) are part of derived terms.

Usage of {{id-der}} is recommended for affixed derivatives.

Related termsEdit

List words in the same language that have strong etymological connections but are not derived terms. Each term should be wikified with {{l|id|WORD}}. Note that words with similar meanings but are not etymologically related are listed under the "See also" header.

DescendantsEdit

The template {{desc|lang|WORD}} is used to list terms in other languages that have borrowed or inherited words from Indonesian. The etymology of these terms should then link back to the Indonesian lemma.

See Wiktionary:List of languages for a complete list of language codes.

See alsoEdit

The "See also" section is used to link to entries and/or other pages on Wiktionary such as appendices and categories. Don't use this section to link to external sites such as Wikipedia or other encyclopedias and dictionaries.

ReferencesEdit

The "References" section contains reference works where users can verify the information available on our entries. This improves the reliability and usefulness of Wiktionary. References are especially encouraged for unusual or disputable claims in etymologies or usage notes. Detailed explanation and usage are covered in Wiktionary:References. Templates such as {{cite-book}} and {{cite-journal}} are usually used for references.

Further readingEdit

The "Further reading" section contains simple recommendations of further places to look.

  • This section may be used to link to external dictionaries such as {{R:KBBI Daring}} and encyclopedias such as Wikipedia or 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica which may be available online or in print.
  • This section is not meant to prove the validity of what is being stated on the Wiktionary entries (the "References" section serves that purpose).

AnagramsEdit

The "Anagrams" section is for anagrams such as asam (sourness), masa (time) and sama (same). Anagrams are listed after the "Further reading" section.

e.g. entry for masa:

===Anagrams===
{{anagrams|id|asam|sama}}

CategorizationEdit

Topic categories such as Category:id:Animals or custom categories such as Category:Indonesian basic words can be added by appending the following at the bottom of entries:

{{topics|id|Animals}}
{{categorize|id|Indonesian basic words}}

The complete list of topic categories available can be found at Category:List of topics (note that the first letter is capitalized). List of custom categories available can be found at Category:Indonesian language.

Non-lemma entriesEdit

Affixed words and compound wordsEdit

An affixed word (kata berimbuhan) is a word which has been affixed with prefix, infix, or suffix, while a compound word (kata majemuk) is a lexeme (less precisely, a word or sign) that consists of more than one stem, but used in single unit. In most aspects, the entry layout is similar to Lemma entries. However, there are several points.

EtymologyEdit

Part of speech and headword lineEdit

Part of speech is similar in Lemma entries, however the headword line uses the (POS) form in order to be categorized as a non-lemma. For example, the entry for bercerita is written as below:

===Verb===
{{head|id|verb form|head=bêrcêrita}}

# {{lb|id|intransitive}} to [[tell]] a [[story]]

Possessive forms of nounsEdit

Possessive forms for nouns such as rumahku (my house), rumahmu (your house), rumahnya (his/her/their house) are automatically displayed using {{id-noun}} which is equivalent to the following:

{{head|id|noun form|plural|{{l|id|buah-buah arbei}}|first-person possessive|buah arbei{{l|id|-ku|ku}}|second-person possessive|buah arbei{{l|id|-mu|mu}}|third-person possessive|buah arbei{{l|id|-nya|nya}}}}

Note that separate entries are not created for these possessive forms.

Historical variationsEdit

During the course of time, the Indonesian language has undergone several spelling reforms. This resulted in different historical spellings of the same word. To reduce duplication of content, historical form entries would serve as soft redirects to standard form entries, and have no definitions or other information except for quotations. All other information belong to standard form entries.

e.g. entry for Jogjakarta:

==Indonesian==

===Proper noun===
{{head|id|proper noun}}

# {{superseded spelling of|id|Yogyakarta}}

Nonstandard formsEdit

Several words have nonstandard forms which can be found in everyday setting. To reduce duplication of content, nonstandard form entries would serve as soft redirects to standard form entries, and have no definitions or other information except for quotations. All other information belong to standard form entries.

==Indonesian==

===Noun===
{{head|id|noun}}

# {{nonstandard spelling of|id|kacamata}}

The standard form entries shall list these nonstandard forms under the Alternative Forms header:

===Alternative forms===
* {{alter|id|kaca mata}}

If there is an entry with both standard form and nonstandard form that have different definitions, then that entry shall be separated into several etymologies. The etymology with standard form shall be entered as lemma, while the one with nonstandard form shall be entered as nonstandard forms. Overall entry layout is similar to the lemma entry.

Detailed considerationEdit

Language considerationEdit

Note that {{R:KBBI Daring}} also records lemmas in other languages, such as:

  1. Balinese (labeled as Bl)
  2. Batak (labeled as Bt) - consists of several varieties such as Toba Batak and Karo Batak.
  3. Betawi or Jakarta Malay (labeled as Jk)
  4. Javanese (labeled as Jw)
  5. Lampung (labeled as Lp) - consists of three varieties: Nyo, Api and Komering.
  6. Madurese (labeled as Mdr)
  7. Malay (labeled as Mal)
  8. Minangkabau (labeled as Mk)
  9. Manado Malay (labeled as Mnd)
  10. Musi or Palembang Malay (labeled as Plb)
  11. Sundanese (labeled as Sd)
  12. Tombulu or Minahasan (labeled as Mn)

Words with these labels in KBBI deserve entries in their respective languages. Editors are encouraged to create entries in the original languages first before creating the Indonesian entry as some of the words may not be attestable in spoken or written forms of Indonesian.

Indonesian vs MalayEdit

Indonesian and Standard Malay (the national language of Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei) have a common origin that can be traced back to the Classical Malay of the Johor-Riau Sultanate. Historically, Malay was the lingua franca used by maritime traders in the Indonesian archipelago. During the Dutch colonial era, Malay in Latin script was introduced as a school subject around late 19th century.

The earliest mention of "bahasa Indonesia" (Indonesian language) was in the 1928 Sumpah Pemuda (Youth Pledge). After independence in 1945, the language underwent further expansion in vocabulary with addition of new technical, scientific and professional terms by the Lembaga Bahasa dan Budaya (Institute for Language and Culture).

As of 2019, Indonesian and Malay are treated as separate languages on Wiktionary. Examples of differences between the two languages can be found at Wikipedia:Comparison of Standard Malay and Indonesian.

Lemmas before 1945Edit

Lemmas that existed during the period of Dutch colonization are recorded in modern dictionaries such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (labeled as Bld) and Kamus Dewan (labeled as IB).

Generally, words attested before 1900 are to be placed under the Malay language.

For words attested between 1900 until independence in 1945 the following considerations are made:

  • If the lemma has become obsolete and is not found in modern Indonesian, then a Malay language entry shall be created with the context label {{lb|ms|historical|Dutch East Indies}} before the definition to categorize the entry into Category:Dutch East Indies Malay. This format is also applicable for words attested before 1900.
  • If the lemma continues to be used in modern Indonesian with minor changes in spelling, then an Indonesian language entry shall be created with {{obsolete spelling of|id|Modern spelling}} as its definition.

Note that spelling from 1901 to 1947 is based on Van Ophuijsen’s Kitab Logat Melayu: Woordenlijst voor de spelling der Malaisch taal met Latijnsch karakter (Malay Vocabulary: Wordlist for the spelling of the Malay language with Latin characters).

Historical variations: spelling reformsEdit

In principle, the latest spelling standard is used to determine which variant spelling to place a word’s definition at. Indonesian has experienced several spelling reforms. The spelling reforms are summarized as below:

International Phonetic Alphabet (2015) (1972) (1967) (1947) (1901)
Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia Ejaan yang Disempurnakan Ejaan Baru / Lembaga Bahasa dan Kesusastraan Ejaan Republik / Soewandi Ejaan van Ophuijsen
t͡ʃ c tj
d͡ʒ j dj
x kh ch
ɲ ny nj
ʃ sy sj
j y j
u, ʊ u oe
ʔ k '

Borrowings/LoanwordEdit

If the word is a modern borrowing from a contemporaneous language, {{bor|id|lang|WORD}} is used. For indirect borrowings or earlier borrowings, {{der|id|lang|WORD}} is used instead.

For modern borrowings from extinct languages such as Sanskrit or Latin, {{learned borrowing}} or its shortcut {{lbor}} is used.

See Wiktionary:List of languages for a complete list of language codes.

Chinese languagesEdit

In Indonesian, most loanwords from Chinese language are not based on Mandarin Chinese (官話普通話國語華語, cmn), but are based on one of the following:

  1. Min Nan (閩南, nan), which can be further divided into:
    1. Hokkien (福建, nan-hok)
    2. Teochew (潮州潮汕, zhx-teo)
  2. Hakka (客家, hak)
  3. Cantonese (廣東, yue).

Thus, it is important to input the specific language source in Traditional Chinese characters along with the pronunciation and related definition. Otherwise, the Mandarin romanization is displayed by default. For example, bakpao (baozi), which is based on Min Nan 肉包 (bah-pao), is written as below:

===Etymology===
From {{bor|id|nan|-}} {{zh-l|肉包|gloss=[[baozi]]|tr=bah-pao}}

Sanskrit languageEdit

As part of the Indosphere, Indonesian has significant influence from Sanskrit (Bahasa Sanskreta). This influence can be borrowed and inherited through Malay, or borrowed through Javanese or other languages, such as Balinese. These multiple sources can result in multiple borrowings, such as berida (old) and wreda (old). Thus, for borrowings for Sanskrit, the etymology and original word in Sanskrit shall be entered appropriately depending on how it is borrowed.

For modern borrowings, i.e. learned borrowings, the following is used:

From {{lbor|id|sa|Word in Sanskrit}}.

For terms inherited through 19th century Malay or Classical Malay, the following is used:

From {{inh|id|ms|Word in Malay}}, from {{der|id|sa|Word in Sanskrit}}.

For terms borrowed through local languages such as Javanese and Balinese, the following is used.

From {{bor|id|lang|Word in Javanese/Balinese}}, from {{der|id|sa|Word in Sanskrit}}.

Do not use {{bor|id|sa}} as Sanskrit and Indonesian are not contemporaneous languages.

European languagesEdit

In Indonesian, the majority of European loanwords are from Dutch or English. Some words may also be calques, e.g. pencakar langit (skyscraper).

For modern borrowings, {{bor|id|lang|WORD}} is used while {{calque|id|lang|WORD}} is used for calques. The ancestor of the borrowed word, e.g. Proto-Germanic (gem-pro), Proto-Indo-European (ine-pro) can be additionally stated using {{der|id|lang|WORD}} to categorize the lemma into categories such as Category:Indonesian terms derived from Proto-Germanic.

e.g. entry for kaisar (emperor; empress)

===Etymology===
From {{bor|id|nl|keizer}}, from {{der|id|dum|keiser}}, from {{der|id|odt|keiser}}, from {{der|id|gem-pro|*kaisaraz}}, from {{der|id|la|Caesar}}.

PronunciationEdit

Main article: Appendix:Indonesian pronunciation

The pronunciation may be entered in both phonemic (using / /) and phonetic form (using [ ]). If both are provided, the two transcriptions are separated using |.

Part of speechEdit

This project page is still in development.

ReferencesEdit

  • James Sneddon (2003) The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society, Sydney, Australia: UNSW Press, →ISBN
  • Paauw, Scott (2009), “One land, one nation, one language: An analysis of Indonesia’s national language policy”, in H. Lehnert-LeHouillier, A.B. Fine, editors, University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, pages 2-16
  • Afthonul Afif (2018), Afthonul Afif, Khidir Marsanto, Lukman Solihin, editors, Dari Melayu Menjadi Indonesia [From Malay to Indonesian] (in Indonesian), Yogyakarta, Indonesia: BASABASI, →ISBN