below

See also: bellow

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English bilooghe, from Middle English bi “by” + looghe “low”.

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

below

  1. Lower in spatial position than.
    • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 4, The Celebrity:
      One morning I had been driven to the precarious refuge afforded by the steps of the inn, after rejecting offers from the Celebrity to join him in a variety of amusements. But even here I was not free from interruption, for he was seated on a horse-block below me, playing with a fox terrier.
    The treasure is buried two meters below the surface.
  2. Lower in value, price, rank or concentration than.
    • Addison
      one degree below kings
    • 2013 July-August, Philip J. Bushnell, “Solvents, Ethanol, Car Crashes & Tolerance”, American Scientist: 
      Surprisingly, this analysis revealed that acute exposure to solvent vapors at concentrations below those associated with long-term effects appears to increase the risk of a fatal automobile accident. Furthermore, this increase in risk is comparable to the risk of death from leukemia after long-term exposure to benzene, another solvent, which has the well-known property of causing this type of cancer.
    The temperature is below zero.
  3. Downstream of.
  4. South of.
  5. Unsuitable to the rank or dignity of; beneath.
    • John Milton
      They beheld, with a just loathing and disdain, [] how below all history the persons and their actions were.
    • Hallam
      who thinks no fact below his regard
    Such petty behavior is below me.
  6. (stage directions) Downstage of.

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Derived termsEdit

AdverbEdit

below (not comparable)

  1. In a lower place.
    • 1879, Richard Jefferies, chapter 1, The Amateur Poacher:
      But then I had the [massive] flintlock by me for protection. ¶ [] The linen-press and a chest on the top of it formed, however, a very good gun-carriage; and, thus mounted, aim could be taken out of the window at the old mare feeding in the meadow below by the brook, [] .
  2. On a lower storey.
  3. Further down.
  4. (nautical) On a lower deck.
    the landlubbers lying down below
  5. (of a temperature) Below zero.

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

TranslationsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Look at pages starting with below.

ReferencesEdit

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "The vertical axis", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

StatisticsEdit

AnagramsEdit

Last modified on 1 April 2014, at 19:34