See also: POD, pod-, pód, po'd, PO'd, pôd, -pod, -pód, and под

English

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English Wikipedia has an article on:
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Etymology

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From Middle English *pod ("seed-pod, husk, shell, outer covering"; attested in pod-ware (legume seed; seed grain)), likely from Old English pād (an outer garment, covering, coat, cloak), from Proto-West Germanic *paidu, from Proto-Germanic *paidō (coat, smock, shirt), from Proto-Indo-European *baiteh₂- (woolen clothes). Cognate with Old Saxon pēda (skirt), German dialectal Pfeid, Pfeit (shirt), Gothic 𐍀𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌰 (paida, mantle, skirt), Albanian petk (gown, garment, dress, suit), Ancient Greek βαίτη (baítē, goat-skin, fur-coat, tent).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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pod (plural pods)

  1. (botany) A seed case for legumes (e.g. peas, beans, peppers); a seedpod.
    Synonyms: capsule, case, container, hull, husk, shell, seedpod, vessel
  2. A small vehicle, especially used in emergency situations.
  3. (obsolete, UK, dialect) A bag; a pouch.
    • 1557 February 13 (Gregorian calendar), Thomas Tusser, A Hundreth Good Pointes of Husbandrie, London: [] Richard Tottel, →OCLC:
      cart, that is clouted and shod,
      cart ladder and wimble, with perser and pod
  4. (collective, zoology) A group of whales, dolphins, seals, porpoises or hippopotami.
    Synonym: gam
  5. (by extension) A group of people who regularly interact.
    • 2016, Joseph Henrich, chapter 8, in The Secret of Our Success [] , Princeton: Princeton University Press, →ISBN:
      These matrilineal groups associate with related families, who are probably sister lineages, to form pods.
    • 2021 October 1, Calder Katyal, “Schools Need to Undo the Damage of Pods”, in The Atlantic[2]:
      For many people forming pods last year, finding compatible people to group with was not a cost but a goal. Private companies that create educational software for pods report that people prefer to group with their friends in order to reduce the incentive to have social contacts outside of their pods.
  6. A small section of a larger office, compartmentalised for a specific purpose.
  7. A subsection of a prison, containing a number of inmates.
  8. A very small room or space for one person to inhabit, as in a capsule hotel.
  9. A nicotine cartridge.
  10. A lie-flat business or first class seat.
  11. A tapered, cylindrical body of ore or minerals.
  12. A straight channel or groove in the body of certain forms of, usually tapered, augers and boring-bits.
  13. (informal, Internet) Clipping of podcast.
    • 2022, Sean Thor Conroe, Fuccboi[3], Hachette, →ISBN:
      I'd started shopping at 2 a.m., and the pod I listened to while shopping was almost through, so had to be 3 damn near.

Hyponyms

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Derived terms

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Translations

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See also

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Verb

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pod (third-person singular simple present pods, present participle podding, simple past and past participle podded)

  1. (intransitive) To bear or produce pods
    • 1849, Herman Melville, Mardi, and a Voyage Thither:
      Wherefore it was, that many ignorant Mardians, who had not pushed their investigations into the science of physiology, sagely divined, that the Tapparians must have podded into life like peas, instead of being otherwise indebted for their existence.
    • 1939, Leonard Alfred George Strong, The Open Sky, page 64:
      David looked seawards along the river. He stared, rubbed his eyes, and stared again. One of the rocks seemed to have podded into something swollen, black and smooth.
    • 2012, Deborah Moggach, You Must Be Sisters, →ISBN, page 219:
      In the herbaceous border many flowers had seeded and podded; spears of them, brown, now rose up behind the mauve blur of the michaelmas daisies.
  2. (transitive) To remove peas from their case.
  3. (transitive, intransitive) To put into a pod or to enter a pod.
    • 1955, Military Review - Volume 35, Issue 9, page 81:
      Thus the torpedoes will have to be stored internally or be podded into streamline containers.
    • 1957, Aviation Week - Volume 66, page 23:
      Lycoming is working on a twin T53 or T55 turboprop installation whereby two engines would be podded together to drive a single propeller.
    • 2004, Yefim Gordon, Dmitriy Komissarov, Antonov An-12 Cub, page 90:
      One, called An- 12BZ-2, was a single-point hose-and- drogue tanker similar to the RAF's Lockheed C-130K Hercules C.1K, except that the hose drum unit was podded, not built in.
    • 2006, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society - Volume 59, page 130:
      This was to be achieved by increasing the number of Lotarev D-18T engines to 8 by podding the inboard pylons on each side to take two engines (see Fig. 7).
    • 2011, Roger Cliff, Chad J. R. Ohlandt, David Yang, Ready for Takeoff: China's Advancing Aerospace Industry, →ISBN:
      In June 2009, the company opened another facility in Tianjin to provide nacelle and thrust-reverser MRO services and to support engine buildup and podding work for the new Airbus A320 assembly line in the same city.
    • 2012, Gabriel Blue Melchizedek, The Alienvirus, →ISBN:
      Then i was podded by a buddie of mine, working the burrough next to mine, all humans had a blue rabbit glow around them and seemed to sleep walk out of the burrough out in to a field while a sound like; ta-ta-dah-taaa, soundeḍ ̣̪continously [sic], where they waited while looking up in the sky.
  4. (intransitive) To swell or fill.

Translations

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References

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  • pod”, in OneLook Dictionary Search.

Anagrams

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Cebuano

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Pronunciation

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  • Hyphenation: pod

Adverb

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pod

  1. (focus) also; too
  2. (after a negative) either

Czech

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Czech pod.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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pod

  1. under (direction, + accusative case)
    Potřebuju se dostat pod ten most.I need to get under that bridge.
  2. below, under (location, + instrumental case)
    Synonym: pode
    Antonym: nad
    Kočka leží pod stolem.The cat is under the table.

Further reading

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  • pod in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • pod in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Lower Sorbian

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Preposition

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pod

  1. Superseded spelling of pód.

Masurian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish pod.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈpɔt/
  • Rhymes: -ɔt
  • Syllabification: pod

Preposition

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pod

  1. denotes location; under, underneath [+instrumental]
  2. denotes movement; to under, to underneath [+accusative]
  3. denotes near location; near [+instrumental]
  4. denotes movement towards; to [+accusative]
  5. denotes object of actions [+accusative]
  6. denotes tools, particularly of agricultural use [+accusative]
  7. denotes manner of agricultural activity [+accusative]
  8. denotes position in a hierarchy; under [+accusative] or [+instrumental]
  9. denotes a term containing an explanation; under [+instrumental]
  10. denotes boundary or edge; at [+accusative]
  11. denotes intended object for some action or other object; for [+accusative] or [+instrumental]
  12. denotes material of construction, typically of a roof; of [+accusative]
  13. denotes temporal proximity; around [+instrumental]
  14. denotes an approcimate value; almost, nearly, just under [+accusative]
  15. denotes contemporary action; during [+instrumental]
  16. denotes gained effect [+accusative]
  17. denotes object against which someone struggles; against [+accusative]
  18. denotes categorizers, i.e. a last name under which someone may find information; under [+instrumental]
  19. denotes coexisting factor; under [+instrumental]
  20. denotes actions [+instrumental]
  21. denotes degree of someone's needs that are met [+accusative] or [+instrumental]
  22. denotes reference points [+accusative]

Further reading

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  • Zofia Stamirowska (1987-2024) “pod”, in Anna Basara, editor, Słownik gwar Ostródzkiego, Warmii i Mazur[4], volume 6, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, →ISBN, pages 138-142

Old Czech

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *podъ.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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pod

  1. Denotes movement; to under, to underneath [+accusative]
  2. Denotes movement up, upward [+accusative]
  3. Denotes movement down, below, downward [+accusative]
  4. Denotes duration to, until; by [+accusative]
  5. Denotes amount under; less than [+accusative]
  6. Denotes inferiority sub, less than [+accusative]
  7. Denotes subordination to under [+accusative]
  8. according to [+accusative]
  9. as a result of [+accusative] or [+zlw- instrumental]
  10. for, to (an end, an aim, a purpose) [+accusative] or [+instrumental]
  11. Denotes location near; under, underneath [+instrumental]
  12. Denotes relation of items worn under; in, dressed in [+instrumental]
  13. Denotes subordination under [+instrumental]
  14. Denotes duration during; in [+instrumental]
  15. Denotes elapsing of time in; after [+instrumental]
  16. Denotes period of someone's rule during [+instrumental]
  17. Denotes amount up to [+instrumental]
  18. Denotes inferiority sub, less than [+instrumental]
  19. Creates an adverb from a noun. [+instrumental]
  20. Denotes form or shape under; in the form of [+instrumental]
  21. Denotes instrumentality through, with, by means of [+instrumental]
  22. Used with documents, contracts, etc. on the basis of [+instrumental]
  23. according to [+instrumental]
  24. Denotes protection, guidance, or watching under [+instrumental]
  25. Denotes consequences of unfulfilled obligation under, on pain of [+instrumental]
  26. despite, in spite of [+instrumental]

Descendants

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  • Czech: pod

References

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Old Polish

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *podъ. First attested in the 14th century.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /pɔt/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /pɔt/

Preposition

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pod

  1. denotes location; under, underneath [+instrumental]
  2. denotes near location; near; under, at [+instrumental]
  3. denotes comitative location; with [+instrumental]
  4. denotes time when something took place; during [+instrumental]
  5. denotes sequence in time; after [+instrumental]
    Synonym: po
  6. used with documents, contracts, etc. on the basis of; as a result of [+instrumental]
  7. despite, against [+instrumental]
  8. denotes form or shape under; in the form of [+instrumental]
  9. denotes subordination under [+instrumental]
  10. denotes period of someone's rule during [+instrumental]
  11. denotes protection, guidance, or watching under [+instrumental] or [+accusative]
  12. denotes consequences of unfulfilled obligation under, on pain of [+instrumental] or [+accusative]
  13. denotes movement; to under, to underneath [+accusative]
  14. denotes movement; to; toward [+accusative]
  15. denotes preceding time just before [+accusative]
  16. The meaning of this term is uncertain. Possibilities include:
    1. denotes following time just after [+accusative]
  17. denotes source of a given right or authority under [+accusative]
  18. The meaning of this term is uncertain.
    • 1956 [Fifteenth century], Jerzy Woronczak, editor, Teksty polskie w rękopisie nr 43 Biblioteki Kapitulnej we Wrocławiu z połowy XV wieku[5], Silesia, page 112r:
      Ibant apostoli gaudentes a conspectu, pod oblicze (pro od oblicza?), concilli (Act 5, 41)
      [Ibant apostoli gaudentes a conspectu, pod oblicze (pro od oblicza?), concilli (Act 5, 41)]

Descendants

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References

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Polish

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pod

Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish pod.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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pod

  1. denotes location; under, underneath [+instrumental]
    Synonyms: popod, poniżej
    Antonyms: nad, ponad
    pod ziemiąunderground
  2. denotes movement; to under, to underneath [+accusative]
    Antonyms: na, nad
  3. denotes movement against; against [+accusative]
    Antonym: z
    pod wiatragainst the wind
    Nie płyń pod prąd!Don't swim against the current!
  4. denotes near location; near [+instrumental]
    Synonyms: popod, blisko, nad, niedaleko, nieopodal, obok, opodal, przy, u stóp, w pobliżu
    Mieszkała pod WarszawąShe lived near Warsaw.
  5. denotes movement to a near location; toward [+accusative]
    Synonyms: popod, nad
    Antonym: spod
  6. denotes protection, guidance, or watching under [+instrumental]
  7. denotes motion towards protection, guidance, or watching to under [+accusative]
    Antonym: spod
  8. denotes cause under; under [+instrumental]
    pod przymusemunder duress
    pod wpływemunder the infuence of
  9. denotes consequences of unfulfilled obligation under, on pain of [+instrumental]
  10. denotes name of object; under [+instrumental]
    pod tytułemunder the title of
  11. denotes location, particularly of addresses; at [+instrumental]
  12. denotes movement, particularly of addresses; to [+accusative]
  13. denotes instrumentality or cause; because of, with [+instrumental]
    Synonym: spod
    pod pióremby (an author)
  14. denotes recepient; to, aimed at [+accusative]
  15. (colloquial) denotes amount less than; under [+accusative]
  16. (colloquial) denotes object of eating immediately after drinking [+accusative]
  17. (colloquial) denotes cause of celebration [+accusative]
    Synonym: z okazji

Trivia

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According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), pod is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 157 times in scientific texts, 153 times in news, 109 times in essays, 165 times in fiction, and 84 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 668 times, making it the 70th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References

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  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990) “pod”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language]‎[1] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków, Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 381

Further reading

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  • pod in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • pod in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “pod, pode”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  • Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], (Can we date this quote?)
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814) “pod”, in Słownik języka polskiego[6]
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861) “pod”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861[7]
  • A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1908), “pod”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 4, Warsaw, page 330

Romanian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Old Church Slavonic подъ (podŭ), from Proto-Slavic *podъ.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈpod/
  • Audio (male voice):(file)
  • Audio (female voice):(file)
  • Rhymes: -od
  • Hyphenation: pod

Noun

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pod n (plural poduri)

  1. bridge
  2. attic
  3. (dated) street paved with wood

Declension

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Derived terms

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See also

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Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology 1

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *podъ.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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pȍd m (Cyrillic spelling по̏д)

  1. floor
    pasti na podto fall to the floor
  2. ground
Declension
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Etymology 2

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *podъ.

Alternative forms

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  • poda (enclitic pronominal form)

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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pȍd (Cyrillic spelling по̏д)

  1. under, beneath (with change of position, answering the question kùda) [+accusative]
    Antonyms: ȉznad, nȁd
    S(j)ela je pod stablo.She sat down under the tree.
    Pao je pod vlak.He fell under the train.
  2. under, beneath (stationary, answering the question gdjȅ/gdȅ) [+instrumental]
    Antonyms: ȉznad, nȁd
    pod suncemunder the sun
    Ona s(j)edi pod stablom.She is sitting under the tree.
  3. under, beneath (being in a particular condition) [+instrumental]
    biti pod sumnjomto be under suspicion
    biti pod pritiskomto be under pressure
    biti pod dojmomto be under impression
    pod oružjemunder arms
    biti pod nadzoromto be under supervision/surveillance
    biti pod nečijom zaštitomto be under someone's protection
    biti pod naglaskomto be accented (stressed), to be under the accent (stress)
    pisati pod pseudonimomto write under the pen name, pseudonymously
    biti pod zakletvomto be under oath
  4. near, toward, in (temporal, with nouns denoting a final temporal segment) [+accusative]
    pod jesentoward fall
    pod krajnear the end
    pod starostin one's old age
  5. during (temporal) [+instrumental]
    pod odmoromduring the (school) break
    pod pauzomduring the (job) break
    pod satomduring the (school) lesson
    pod vladavinomduring the reign of
  6. as, instead of, in lieu of [+accusative]
    pokušati prodati mrkvu pod rotkvuto try selling carrot as radish
  7. miscellaneous idiomatic meanings
    baciti pod nogeto reject, throw away
    nebu pod oblakefar away
    pod uv(j)etom/uslovom daunder the condition of, on the condition that
    pod izgovoromunder the pretext
    pod Zagrebomnear Zagreb
    pod Velebitomat the foot of Velebit, on the foothills of Velebit
    pod korovomcovered/overgrown with weed
    ništa pod (milim) bogomabsolutely nothing
    pod kontrolom (with genitive)under the control (of)
    pod tim(e) mislimby that I mean
    biti pod antibioticimato be on antibiotics
    pod pravim kutomperpendicular
    To je pod moranje.That is obligatory.

Silesian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish pod.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈpɔt/
  • Rhymes: -ɔt
  • Syllabification: pod

Preposition

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pod

  1. denotes location; under, underneath [+instrumental]
  2. denotes movement; to under, to underneath [+accusative]
  3. denotes near location; near; under, at [+instrumental]
  4. denotes movement; to; toward [+accusative]
  5. denotes name of object; under [+instrumental]
    pod tytułymunder the title of
  6. denotes consequences of unfulfilled obligation under, on pain of [+instrumental]

Further reading

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  • pod in dykcjonorz.eu
  • pod in silling.org

Slovak

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *podъ.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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pod (+ instrumental)

  1. below
    Synonym: podo
    Antonym: nad

Further reading

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  • pod”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Slovene

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *podъ.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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pȍd m inan

  1. floor (lower part of a room)
    Synonym: tla

Inflection

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The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Masculine inan., hard o-stem
nom. sing. pòd
gen. sing. pôda
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
pòd pôda pôdi
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
pôda pôdov pôdov
dative
(dajȃlnik)
pôdu pôdoma pôdom
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
pòd pôda pôde
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
pôdu pôdih pôdih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
pôdom pôdoma pôdi

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • pod”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Volapük

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Noun

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pod (nominative plural pods)

  1. apple

Declension

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