See also: Rack, RACK, and räck

EnglishEdit

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PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English rakke, rekke, from Middle Dutch rac, recke, rec (Dutch rek), see rekken.

NounEdit

rack (plural racks)

  1. A series of one or more shelves, stacked one above the other
  2. Any of various kinds of frame for holding luggage or other objects on a vehicle or vessel.
    Synonym: luggage rack
  3. (historical) A device, incorporating a ratchet, used to torture victims by stretching them beyond their natural limits.
  4. (nautical) A piece or frame of wood, having several sheaves, through which the running rigging passes.
    Synonym: rack block
  5. (nautical, slang) A bunk.
    • 2008, Byron L. Smith, Prescription Music, →ISBN, page 33:
      Chief Stevens approached my rack and repeatedly ordered me to vacate my rack and report to the working party.
    • 2010, Herb Brewer, Chronicles of a Marine Rifleman: Vietnam, 1965-1966, →ISBN, page 171:
      By the time I had unpacked my sea bag, made my rack, and finished a good long hot shower, it was late in the evening.
    • 2016, Cpl. Osborn R. E, Like Killing Rats, →ISBN:
      I took off my helmet, sat it gently down at the head of my rack on the wooden deck, plopped my butt down on my rack again, and began taking off my stateside assbusting boots.
  6. (nautical, by extension, slang, uncountable) Sleep.
  7. A distaff.
  8. (mechanical engineering) A bar with teeth on its face or edge, to work with those of a gearwheel, pinion#, or worm, which is to drive or be driven by it.
  9. (mechanical engineering) A bar with teeth on its face or edge, to work with a pawl as a ratchet allowing movement in one direction only, used for example in a handbrake or crossbow.
  10. A cranequin, a mechanism including a rack, pinion and pawl, providing both mechanical advantage and a ratchet, used to bend and cock a crossbow.
  11. A set of antlers (as on deer, moose or elk).
  12. A cut of meat involving several adjacent ribs.
    I bought a rack of lamb at the butcher's yesterday.
  13. (billiards, snooker) A hollow triangle used for aligning the balls at the start of a game.
  14. (slang, vulgar) A woman's breasts.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:breasts
  15. (climbing, caving) A friction device for abseiling, consisting of a frame with five or more metal bars, around which the rope is threaded.
    rappel rack
    abseil rack
  16. (climbing, slang) A climber's set of equipment for setting up protection and belays, consisting of runners, slings, carabiners, nuts, Friends, etc.
    I used almost a full rack on the second pitch.
  17. A grate on which bacon is laid.
  18. (obsolete) That which is extorted; exaction.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Sir E. Sandys to this entry?)
  19. (algebra) A set with a distributive binary operation whose result is unique.
  20. (Britain, slang) A thousand pounds (£1,000), especially such proceeds of crime
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

VerbEdit

rack (third-person singular simple present racks, present participle racking, simple past and past participle racked)

  1. To place in or hang on a rack.
  2. To torture (someone) on the rack.
    • 1563, John Foxe, Actes and Monuments
      He was racked and miserably tormented.
    • 2011, Thomas Penn, Winter King, Penguin 2012, p. 228:
      As the poet Sir Thomas Wyatt later recalled, his father, Henry VII's jewel-house keeper Henry Wyatt, had been racked on the orders of Richard III, who had sat there and watched.
  3. To cause (someone) to suffer pain.
  4. (figurative) To stretch or strain; to harass, or oppress by extortion.
    • c. 1596–1598, William Shakespeare, “The Merchant of Venice”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene i]:
      Try what my credit can in Venice do; / That shall be racked even to the uttermost.
    • 1598, Edmund Spenser, A Vewe of the Present State of Irelande
      The landlords there most shamefully rack their tenants.
    • 1645, Thomas Fuller, Good Thoughts in Bad Times
      Grant that I may never rack a Scripture simile beyond the true intent thereof
  5. (billiards, snooker, pool) To put the balls into the triangular rack and set them in place on the table.
    Synonym: rack up
  6. (slang) To strike a male in the testicles.
  7. (firearms) To (manually) load (a round of ammunition) from the magazine or belt into firing position in an automatic or semiautomatic firearm.
  8. (firearms) To move the slide bar on a shotgun in order to chamber the next round.
  9. (mining) To wash (metals, ore, etc.) on a rack.
  10. (nautical) To bind together, as two ropes, with cross turns of yarn, marline, etc.
  11. (structural engineering) Tending to shear a structure (that is, force it to move in different directions at different points).
    Synonym: shear
    • 1977, Tuomi, Roger L.; Gromala, David S., “Racking Strength of Walls”, in USDA Forest Service Research Paper[1], number FPL 301:
      The racking strength of a wall system is defined in terms of its ability to resist horizon­tal inplane shear forces. The shear, or racking, forces which act on wail systems arise primarily from wind.
    Post-and-lintel construction racks easily.
Usage notesEdit

In senses “torture” and “suffer pain”, frequently confused with wrack (destroy) (more rarely, wrack (wreckage)), both as stand-alone verb and in compounds.[1] In most uses, rack is correct, and wrack is incorrect.[2] Etymologically, nerve-racking (stressful), pain-racked, and rack one's brain, rack one's brains (think hard) are correct, while rack and ruin and storm-racked are incorrect, variants of wrack and ruin (complete destruction) and storm-wracked (wrecked by a storm).

Usage guidance differs: either prefer the etymologically correct term, prefer rack to (archaic) wrack, or use either. The etymologically correct forms are preferred by some style guides,[3] but the unetymological forms are well-established and in wide use, and other style guides simply consider them variant spellings.[4] Other style guides categorically ban wrack as archaic, suggesting modern synonyms like wreck, ruin, or destroy.[5] In some cases style guides are confused by the etymology, or feature unhistorical forms such as nerve-wracking.[6]

This confusion dates to Early Modern English in the 16th century (as in rack and ruin), and is presumably due to the influence of ⟨wr⟩ in words such as wreak, wreck, wrench, etc., which connote discomfort and torment.[7] Formally termed the graphaesthesia of the graphaestheme ⟨wr⟩, since identical sound /r/ to ⟨r⟩; compare with phonaesthesia.[8] Compare rapt/wrapt, and also ⟨gh⟩ as in ghost, ghastly, ghoul.

Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old English reċċan (to stretch out, extend).

VerbEdit

rack (third-person singular simple present racks, present participle racking, simple past and past participle racked)

  1. To stretch a person's joints.
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Middle English reken, from Old Norse reka (to be drifted, tost)[9]

The noun is from Middle English rak, rakke, from Middle English rek (drift; thing tossed ashore; jetsam), from the verb.

VerbEdit

rack (third-person singular simple present racks, present participle racking, simple past and past participle racked)

  1. To drive; move; go forward rapidly; stir
  2. To fly, as vapour or broken clouds
TranslationsEdit

NounEdit

rack (uncountable)

  1. Thin, flying, broken clouds, or any portion of floating vapour in the sky.
    • 1669, Francis Bacon, Sylva Sylvarum or A Natural History in ten Centuries, page 32:
      The winds in the upper region, which move the clouds above, which we call the rack, [] pass without noise.
    • 1851, Charles Kingsley, Three Fishers
      And the night rack came rolling up.
    • 1607, William Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra, Act IV, scene 14
      Sometime we see a cloud that's dragonish ... That which is now a horse ... The rack dislimns, and makes it indistinct

Etymology 4Edit

From Middle English rakken.

VerbEdit

rack (third-person singular simple present racks, present participle racking, simple past and past participle racked)

  1. (brewing) To clarify, and thereby deter further fermentation of, beer, wine or cider by draining or siphoning it from the dregs.
    • 1626, Francis Bacon, Sylva Sylvarum, Or, A Naturall Historie: In Ten Centuries
      It is in common practice to draw wine or beer from the lees (which we call racking), whereby it will clarify much the sooner.
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

See rack (that which stretches), or rock (verb).

VerbEdit

rack (third-person singular simple present racks, present participle racking, simple past and past participle racked)

  1. (of a horse) To amble fast, causing a rocking or swaying motion of the body; to pace.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Fuller to this entry?)

NounEdit

rack (plural racks)

  1. A fast amble.

Etymology 6Edit

See wreck.

NounEdit

rack (plural racks)

  1. (obsolete) A wreck; destruction.
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 7Edit

NounEdit

rack (plural racks)

  1. (obsolete) A young rabbit, or its skin.
    • 1869 February 13, “Rabbit Skin”, in All the Year Round, page 247:
      Now, sir, you would say a skin is a skin, we say it is a ' whole,' or a 'half,' or a 'quarter,' or a 'rack,' or a 'sucker. Suckers are skins of infant rabbits, and of little value. Eight racks are equal to one whole.
    • 1879, Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, page 380:
      The skin of a sucker is white, of a quarter, black and white striped, of a rack all black, and of a best all white.
    • 1882, Bees, rabbits, and pigeons; how to breed and how to rear them:
      Those would be of different shades of colour according to the time of year at which they were produced, those bred about May-day undergoing no change from their white colour, but from a white rack become a whole skin; []
    • 1892, Henry Poland, Fur-bearing Animals in Nature and in Commerce, page 289:
      Rabbit skins are sorted into wholes, halves, quarters, racks, and suckers, or very small skins.

Etymology 8Edit

NounEdit

rack

  1. Alternative form of arak

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Garner’s Modern American Usage
  2. ^ Charles Harrington Elster (2010) The Accidents of Style: Good Advice on How Not to Write Badly, pages 169–170: “In all other familiar contexts, the proper spelling is rack.”
  3. ^ rack/wrack”, The Mavens’ Word of the Day, April 20, 1998
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, 1994:
    “Probably the most sensible attitude would be to ignore the etymologies of rack and wrack (which, of course, is exactly what most people do) and regard them simply as spelling variants of one word. If you choose to toe the line drawn by the commentators, however, you will want to write nerve-racking, rack one’s brains, storm-wracked, and for good measure wrack and ruin. Then you will have nothing to worry about being criticized for — except, of course, for using too many clichés.”
  5. ^ The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage, 5th edition, “wrack”, 2015
  6. ^ The Associated Press (2015) The Associated Press Stylebook 2015, “wrack”
  7. ^ Kay, Christian J. and Wotherspoon, Irené. 2002. “Wreak, wrack, rack, and (w)ruin: the History of Some Confused Spellings”, in Sounds, Words, Texts and Change: Papers from 11 ICEHL, ed. by Teresa Fanego, Belen Mendez-Naya and Elena Seoane. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 129–143.
  8. ^ Kay & Wotherspoon, 2002, p. 139 and footnotes 8 and 9, pp. 141–142
  9. ^ rack in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.

Further readingEdit

AnagramsEdit


SpanishEdit

NounEdit

rack m (plural racks)

  1. rack