EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English gost, gast, from Old English gāst (breath, soul, spirit, ghost, being), from Proto-West Germanic *gaist, from Proto-Germanic *gaistaz (ghost, spirit), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰéysd-os, from *ǵʰéysd- (anger, agitation). Cognate with Scots ghaist (ghost), Saterland Frisian Gäist (spirit), West Frisian geast (spirit), Dutch geest (spirit, mind, ghost), German Geist (spirit, mind, intellect), Swedish gast (ghost), Sanskrit हेड (héḍa, anger, hatred), Persian زشت(zešt, ugly, hateful, disgusting).

PronunciationEdit

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ɡəʊst/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ɡoʊst/
  • Rhymes: -əʊst
  • (file)

NounEdit

ghost (countable and uncountable, plural ghosts)

  1. (uncommon or dated) The spirit; the soul of man.
  2. The disembodied soul; the soul or spirit of a deceased person; a spirit appearing after death
    Everyone believed that the ghost of an old lady haunted the crypt.
    • 1667, John Dryden, Annus Mirabilis
      The mighty ghosts of our great Harries rose.
    • 1798, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere:
      I thought that I had died in sleep/And was a blessed ghost
    • 1887, H. Rider Haggard, She: A History of Adventure[1]:
      `Oh, God help us, sir!' he ejaculated in a frightened whisper, `here's a corpse a-coming sliding down the passage!' For a moment I was puzzled, but presently, of course, it struck me that he must have seen Ayesha, wrapped in her grave-like garment, and been deceived by the extraordinary undulating smoothness of her walk into a belief that she was a white ghost gliding towards him.
    • 1992, Rudolf M[athias] Schuster, The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America: East of the Hundredth Meridian, volume V, New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Press, →ISBN, page vii:
      Hepaticology, outside the temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere, still lies deep in the shadow cast by that ultimate "closet taxonomist," Franz Stephani—a ghost whose shadow falls over us all.
  3. Any faint shadowy semblance; an unsubstantial image.
    • 1845 February, — Quarles [pseudonym; Edgar Allan Poe], “The Raven”, in The American Review[2], volume I, number II, New York, N.Y.; London: Wiley & Putnam, [], OCLC 1015246566:
      And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.
    • 2013 May-June, William E. Conner, “An Acoustic Arms Race”, in American Scientist, volume 101, number 3, page 206-7:
      Earless ghost swift moths become “invisible” to echolocating bats by forming mating clusters close (less than half a meter) above vegetation and effectively blending into the clutter of echoes that the bat receives from the leaves and stems around them.
    • 2017 July 23, Brandon Nowalk, “The great game begins with a bang on Game Of Thrones (newbies)”, in The Onion AV Club[3]:
      The Arya subplot makes up for a lot, though. At first she’s so aloof as to make you wonder whether there is any of the old Arya in there. She’s sitting there with her old friend Hot Pie, gorging on freshly baked bread, and she’s stuck in a terrible monotone. She barely answers his questions. She’s a ghost of herself. And then Hot Pie gives us the key to Arya’s whole thing this season so far: She didn’t know that Jon had defeated the Boltons.
    not a ghost of a chance; the ghost of an idea
  4. A false image formed in a telescope, camera, or other optical device by reflection from the surfaces of one or more lenses.
  5. An unwanted image similar to and overlapping or adjacent to the main one on a television screen, caused by the transmitted image being received both directly and via reflection.
    • 2007, Albert Abramson, The History of Television, 1942 to 2000 (page 60)
      There was less flicker, jitter was nonexistent, and the screen pattern had been rendered far more viewworthy, with ghosts being virtually suppressed.
  6. A ghostwriter.
  7. A nonexistent person invented to obtain some fraudulent benefit.
    • 2004, Joint Learning Initiative, ‎Global Equity Initiative, Human Resources for Health: Overcoming the Crisis (page 76)
      Some health systems are plagued by "ghost" and "absent" workers. Ghost workers are nonexistent, listed in the payroll, and paid, a clear sign of corruption.
    • 2008, The Asia-Pacific Human Development Report (page 63)
      1,500 secondary schools in Jiangxi found 125 cases of illegally collected Ghosts and Absentees fees worth $2 million.
  8. A dead person whose identity is stolen by another. See ghosting.
  9. (Internet) An unresponsive user on IRC, resulting from the user's client disconnecting without notifying the server.
  10. (computing) An image of a file or hard disk.
  11. (theater) An understudy.
  12. (espionage) A covert (and deniable) agent.
  13. The faint image that remains after an attempt to remove graffiti.
    • 1992, Maurice J. Whitford, Getting Rid of Graffiti, page 45:
      Regardless of GRM used, graffiti ghosts persist. Protect cladding with surface coating or replace with graffiti resistant paint or laminate.
  14. (video games) An opponent in a racing game that follows a previously recorded route, allowing players to compete against previous best times.
    • 2012, Keith Burgun, Game Design Theory: A New Philosophy for Understanding Games:
      This is also the case for some racing games (Super Mario Kart is a good example) that allow you to compete against your ghosts, which are precise recordings of your performance.
  15. (attributive, in names of species) White or pale.
  16. (attributive, in names of species) Transparent or translucent.
  17. (attributive) Abandoned.
  18. (attributive) Remnant; the remains of a(n).
  19. (attributive) Perceived or listed but not real.
  20. (attributive) Of cryptid, supernatural or extraterrestrial nature.
  21. (attributive) Substitute.
    ghost writer; ghost band; ghost singer
  22. (uncountable) A game in which players take turns to add a letter to a possible word, trying not to complete a word.

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Terms derived from ghost

DescendantsEdit

  • Japanese: ゴースト (gōsuto)

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

See alsoEdit

VerbEdit

ghost (third-person singular simple present ghosts, present participle ghosting, simple past and past participle ghosted)

  1. (obsolete, transitive) To haunt; to appear to in the form of an apparition.
  2. (obsolete) To die; to expire.
  3. (literary) To imbue with a ghost-like hue or effect.
    • 1938, Norman Lindsay, Age of Consent, Sydney: Ure Smith, published 1962, page 32:
      It spread slowly up from the sea-rim, a welling upwards of pure white light, ghosting the beach with silver and drawing the grey bastions of sandstone out of formless space.
  4. (transitive, intransitive) To ghostwrite.
    • 1975, Saul Bellow, Humboldt's Gift [Avon ed., 1976, p. 41]:
      Well, you wrote a few books, you wrote a famous play, and even that was half ghosted.
    • 2014 March 9, Elizabeth Day, “Is the LRB the best magazine in the world?”, in The Observer[4]:
      The current issue carries an extraordinary 26,000-word piece by Andrew O'Hagan on his failed attempt to ghost the WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange's memoir, which was trending on Twitter before copies even hit the news-stands.
  5. (nautical) To sail seemingly without wind.
    • 2016, Nathanael Johnson, Unseen City, →ISBN, page 192:
      They move without any visible sign of movement, like a wakeless ship ghosting over the water.
  6. (computing) To copy a file or hard drive image.
  7. (graphical user interface) To gray out (a visual item) to indicate that it is unavailable.
    • 1991, Amiga User Interface Style Guide (page 76)
      Whenever a menu or menu item is inappropriate or unavailable for selection, it should be ghosted. Never allow the user to select something that does nothing in response.
  8. (Internet, transitive) To forcibly disconnect an IRC user who is using one's reserved nickname.
    • 2001, "Luke", to leave (vb.): Hurg [OT] (on newsgroup alt.games.lucas-arts.monkey-island)
      I'm so untechnical that I once ghosted a registered IRC nick and then tried to identify myself to NickServ with the valid password before actually changing my nick to the aforementioned moniker.
  9. (intransitive) To appear or move without warning, quickly and quietly; to slip.
    • 2011 September 24, David Ornstein, “Arsenal 3 - 0 Bolton”, in BBC Sport[5]:
      Arsenal came into the match under severe pressure and nerves were palpable early on as Pratley was brilliantly denied by Szczesny after ghosting in front of Kieran Gibbs
    • 2011, Mark Harnden, In the Dark Backyard, →ISBN, page 59:
      At the flank of the main stage, I took root for an hour, until a female form ghosted in front of me that I recognised from university two years before.
    • 2012, Ian Tregillis, Bitter Seeds, →ISBN:
      He ghosted through the door. It clanged a few seconds later as his pursuer pounded on it.
  10. (transitive) To transfer (a prisoner) to another prison without the prior knowledge of other inmates.
    • 2020, Jamie Bennett, ‎Victoria Knight, Prisoners on Prison Films (page 26)
      His power base, however, is undermined by him being constantly, “ghosted”, or moved from prison to prison.
  11. (slang) To kill.
    • 2000, Jim Wheat, Ken Wheat, David Twohy, Pitch Black (film):
      My recommendation: Do me. Don't take the chance that I'll get shiv-happy on your wannabe ass. Ghost me, Riddick. Would if I were you. Though I notice he tried to ghost my ass. When he shot up that stranger instead.
    • 2004, Jim Wheat, Ken Wheat, David Twohy, The Chronicles of Riddick (film):
      He just ghosted two guys, and I never even saw him. Plan was to clean the bank, ghost the mercs, break wide through the tunnel.
    • 2013, im Wheat, Ken Wheat, David Twohy, Riddick (film):
      This may come as a shock to you, Johns, but I didn't ghost your son. He seemed set on killin' himself. Diaz was gonna take the nodes for himself and ghost me. He was gonna leave you out here alone.
  12. (slang) To break up with someone without warning or explanation; to perform an act of ghosting.
    • 2016 March 21, Allison P. Davies, “What I Learned Tindering My Way Across Europe”, in Travel + Leisure[6], archived from the original on 2018-01-06:
      By 6 p.m., I had a list of restaurants to try from Hamish, a chef who couldn’t meet, a follow-up from Adam (“I’ve never seen a room at the Ace....”), and an offer from Agoraphobic Paul to come over and “have a joint and a cuddle.” I’d confirmed a walking tour of Greenwich from Max, who ghosted.
    • 2017 September 26, Judith Duportail, “I asked Tinder for my data. It sent me 800 pages of my deepest, darkest secrets”, in The Guardian[7]:
      Tinder knows me so well. It knows the real, inglorious version of me who copy-pasted the same joke to match 567, 568, and 569; who exchanged compulsively with 16 different people simultaneously one New Year’s Day, and then ghosted 16 of them.
    • 2018, Ling Ma, chapter 17, in Severance, →ISBN:
      He had texted, called, and emailed a bunch since then. I hadn't meant to ghost, but it was just easier not to deal with it.
  13. (transitive, slang) To ignore (a person).
  14. (film) To provide the speaking or singing voice for another actor, who is lip-syncing.
    • 1955, Saturday Review (volume 38, part 2, page 27)
      Here's how it went: Larry Parks as elderly Al Jolson was watching Larry Parks playing young Al Jolson in the first movie — in other words, Parks ghosting for Parks. At the same time, Jolson himself was ghosting the voices for both of them.
    • 1999, The Golden Age of Musicals (page 50)
      One of the few performers to triumph over ghosting was Ava Gardner in Freed's Show Boat (1951). Not only does she lip-synch with breathtaking accuracy, her performance gives the cotton-candy production its only underpinning of realism.

Derived termsEdit

AnagramsEdit