Translingual edit

Alternative forms edit

Numeral edit

il

  1. (informal) A Roman numeral representing forty-nine (49).

See also edit

Akatek edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Mayan *il- Compare with Achi ilonik

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

il

  1. (transitive) to see, to watch, look at

References edit

Preliminary Classic Maya ‐ English, English ‐ Classic Maya Vocabulary of Hieroglyphic Readings by Erik Boot

2022. Akateko Living Dictionary. Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages. ( look "ʔil" wav recording )

Azerbaijani edit

Other scripts
Cyrillic ил
Abjad ایل

Etymology edit

From Proto-Turkic *yïl (year).[1] Cognate with Old Turkic𐰘𐰃𐰞(yïl).[2]

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Noun edit

il (definite accusative ili, plural illər)

  1. year
    Synonyms: sənə, (Classical Azerbaijani) sal, (Classical Azerbaijani) am
    uzun illərmany years (literally, “long years”)
    Mən on ildir ki məktəbi bitirmişəm.
    It's been ten years since I finished school.

Declension edit

    Declension of il
singular plural
nominative il
illər
definite accusative ili
illəri
dative ilə
illərə
locative ildə
illərdə
ablative ildən
illərdən
definite genitive ilin
illərin
    Possessive forms of il
nominative
singular plural
mənim (my) ilim illərim
sənin (your) ilin illərin
onun (his/her/its) ili illəri
bizim (our) ilimiz illərimiz
sizin (your) iliniz illəriniz
onların (their) ili or illəri illəri
accusative
singular plural
mənim (my) ilimi illərimi
sənin (your) ilini illərini
onun (his/her/its) ilini illərini
bizim (our) ilimizi illərimizi
sizin (your) ilinizi illərinizi
onların (their) ilini or illərini illərini
dative
singular plural
mənim (my) ilimə illərimə
sənin (your) ilinə illərinə
onun (his/her/its) ilinə illərinə
bizim (our) ilimizə illərimizə
sizin (your) ilinizə illərinizə
onların (their) ilinə or illərinə illərinə
locative
singular plural
mənim (my) ilimdə illərimdə
sənin (your) ilində illərində
onun (his/her/its) ilində illərində
bizim (our) ilimizdə illərimizdə
sizin (your) ilinizdə illərinizdə
onların (their) ilində or illərində illərində
ablative
singular plural
mənim (my) ilimdən illərimdən
sənin (your) ilindən illərindən
onun (his/her/its) ilindən illərindən
bizim (our) ilimizdən illərimizdən
sizin (your) ilinizdən illərinizdən
onların (their) ilindən or illərindən illərindən
genitive
singular plural
mənim (my) ilimin illərimin
sənin (your) ilinin illərinin
onun (his/her/its) ilinin illərinin
bizim (our) ilimizin illərimizin
sizin (your) ilinizin illərinizin
onların (their) ilinin or illərinin illərinin

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003), “*jɨl”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill
  2. ^ Abuseitova, M. Kh; Bukhatuly, B., editors (2008), “𐰖𐰃𐰞”, in TÜRIK BITIG: Ethno Cultural Dictionary, Language Committee of Ministry of Culture and Information of Republic of Kazakhstan

Bunak edit

Noun edit

il

  1. water

Further reading edit

Danish edit

Noun edit

il c

  1. (rare) haste, speed

Verb edit

il

  1. imperative of ile

Epigraphic Mayan edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Mayan *il-.

Verb edit

il

  1. to see

Faroese edit

 
Iljar (soles).

Etymology edit

From Old Norse il.

Noun edit

il f (genitive singular iljar, plural iljar)

  1. the sole of the foot
f8 Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative il ilin iljar iljarnar
Accusative il ilina iljar iljarnar
Dative il ilini iljum iljunum
Genitive iljar iljarinnar ilja iljanna


French edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Middle French il, from Old French il, from Vulgar Latin *illī, which is derived from Classical Latin ille.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

il m (third-person singular, plural ils, accusative le, dative lui, emphatic lui, possessive determiner son)

  1. he (third-person singular masculine subject pronoun for human subject)
    Il est parti.
    He left.
  2. it (third-person singular subject pronoun for grammatically masculine objects)
    Je cherche mon livre. Où est-il ?
    I'm looking for my book. Where is it?
  3. (impersonal pronoun) Impersonal subject; it
    Il pleut.
    It’s raining.

Related terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Dauzat, Albert; Jean Dubois, Henri Mitterand (1964), chapter IL, in Nouveau dictionnaire étymologique (in French), Paris: Librairie Larousse

Further reading edit

Anagrams edit

Friulian edit

Friulian Definite Articles
singular plural
masculine il
l'
i
feminine  la
l'
lis

Alternative forms edit

  • al (Western and Southern Friulian)
  • el (Northern Friulian)

Etymology edit

From Latin illum, ultimately from ille.

Article edit

il m sg (plural i)

  1. the

See also edit

Haitian Creole edit

Etymology edit

From French île.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

il

  1. island

Icelandic edit

 
Iljar (soles).

Etymology edit

From Old Norse il, from Proto-Germanic *iljō.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

il f (genitive singular iljar, nominative plural iljar)

  1. the sole of the foot
    Honum sagðist vera illt í ilinni.He said his sole hurt.

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Ido edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

il (plural ili, possessive ilua, possessive plural ilui)

  1. Apocopic form of ilu; he, him

See also edit

Interlingua edit

Pronoun edit

il

  1. personal pronoun used with impersonal verbs
    Il ha multe arbores illac.
    There are many trees there.

Usage notes edit

Optional.

Irish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Irish il, from Proto-Celtic *ɸilus, from Proto-Indo-European *pélh₁us, from Proto-Indo-European *pelh₁-.

Adjective edit

il (genitive singular masculine il, genitive singular feminine ile, plural ile, comparative ile)

  1. (literary) many
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Adjective edit

il (genitive singular masculine il, genitive singular feminine ile, plural ile, comparative ile)

  1. Alternative form of oll (great; huge, vast, immense)

Declension edit

Mutation edit

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
il n-il hil not applicable
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit

  • Ó Dónaill, Niall (1977), “il”, in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, Dublin: An Gúm, →ISBN
  • Entries containing “il” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “il” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Italian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • el (archaic or regional)
  • 'l (archaic or pronunciation spelling)
  • i' (Tuscan pronunciation spelling)

Etymology edit

From earlier *ille, *elle, from Latin illum (and illud), ultimately from ille. The final vowel fell by apocope, and the /e/ (< Latin ⟨ē ĭ⟩) in monosyllable particles shifted to /i/ in Tuscan, compare in, di, ri-, mi. The form el is found in older texts and can still be heard regionally.

Patota claims this to be from the older form lo (from the same source), via an intermediate form l. The initial i would be a svarabhakti vowel added to the form l in order to make the pronunciation easier.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

Italian Definite Articles
singular plural
masculine il
lo/l'
i
gli
feminine  la/l' le

il m sg (plural i)

  1. the

References edit

  1. ^ Patota, Giuseppe (2002) Lineamenti di grammatica storica dell'italiano (in Italian), Bologna: il Mulino, →ISBN, pages 123, 124

Anagrams edit

Middle French edit

Etymology edit

From Old French il.

Pronoun edit

il m

  1. he
  2. it (impersonal, or referring to an unknown person)

Descendants edit

  • French: il

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Noun edit

il f or m (definite singular ila or ilen, indefinite plural iler, definite plural ilene)

  1. sole of the foot
    Synonym: fotsåle

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse il f, from Proto-Germanic *iljō f, *ili n.

Noun edit

il f (definite singular ila, indefinite plural iler, definite plural ilene)

  1. sole of the foot, especially the middle part
    Synonym: fotsole

Inflection edit

Related terms edit

References edit

Old French edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin ille (masculine nominative).

Pronoun edit

il m sg (feminine ele)

  1. he (third-person masculine singular subject pronoun)
Descendants edit
  • Middle French: il
    • French: il

Etymology 2 edit

From Vulgar Latin illī, nominative masculine plural of Latin ille.

Alternative forms edit

  • ils (late, analogic)

Pronoun edit

il m pl (feminine eles)

  1. they (third-person masculine plural subject pronoun)
    • c. 1170, Wace, Le Roman de Rou:
      S'il vos poent ataindre, ja vos areient tué.
      If they could range you, they would have already killed you.
Descendants edit

Old Irish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Celtic *ɸilus, from Proto-Indo-European *pélh₁us, from Proto-Indo-European *pelh₁-. Cognate with Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐌻𐌿 (filu, much), Ancient Greek πολύς (polús, much), Sanskrit पुरु (puru, much).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

il (equative lir, comparative lia)

  1. much, many (usually as the first member of a compound, usually governs a plural noun)
    cosin taidbse ilwith much ostentation
    Is amlid do·rigéni Dia corp duini ó il-ballaib.Thus God has made man's body of many members.
    Is ferr precept oldaas labrad il-béelre.Preaching is better than speaking many languages.
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 4d15
      In Belzefuth: is béss didu ind lïacc benir il-béim friss, et intí do·thuit foir ɔ·boing a chnámi, intí fora tuit-som immurgu at·bail-side.
      The Beelzebub: it is the custom, then, of the stone that many blows are hit on it, and he who falls upon it breaks his bones; however, he whom it falls on perishes
    • c. 845, St Gall Glosses on Priscian, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1975, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. II, pp. 49–224, Sg. 26b7
      De dliguth trá inna n-il-toimdden sin, is de gaibthi “igitur”; quasi dixisset “Ní fail ní nád taí mo dligeth-sa fair i ndegaid na comroircnech.”
      Of the law then, of those many opinions, it is thereof that he recites “igitur”; as if he had said, “There is nothing which my law does not touch upon after the erroneous ones.

Inflection edit

As a preposed adjective, usually uninflected, but the following forms are found occasionally:

  • Nominative/accusative plural: ili
  • Dative plural: ilib

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

Mutation edit

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
il unchanged n-il
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit

Old Norse edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *iljō, *ili (sole).

Noun edit

il f (genitive iljar, plural iljar)

  1. the sole of the foot

Declension edit

Descendants edit

  • Icelandic: il
  • Faroese: il
  • Norwegian Nynorsk: il
  • Norwegian Bokmål: il
  • Old Swedish: il

References edit

il”, in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Somali edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Cushitic *ʔil-. Cognates include Oromo ija, Sidamo ille and Jiiddu el.[1]

Noun edit

il

  1. eye

References edit

  • “il” In: Abdullah Umar Mansur (1985) Qaamuska Afsoomaliga.
  1. ^ Salim Alio Ibro (1998) English-Jiddu-Somali Mini-Dictionary, La Trobe University Language Center, →ISBN

Swedish edit

Etymology edit

From ila (to hurry).

Noun edit

il c

  1. (archaic) a gust; a strong, abrupt rush of wind
  2. (archaic) Synonym of ilning
  3. (archaic) hurry

Declension edit

Declension of il 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative il ilen ilar ilarna
Genitive ils ilens ilars ilarnas

Derived terms edit

References edit

Turkish edit

Etymology edit

From Ottoman Turkishایل(il), from Proto-Turkic *ēl (realm). Doublet of el.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

il (definite accusative ili, plural iller)

  1. province

Declension edit

Inflection
Nominative il
Definite accusative ili
Singular Plural
Nominative il iller
Definite accusative ili illeri
Dative ile illere
Locative ilde illerde
Ablative ilden illerden
Genitive ilin illerin

Tzotzil edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

il

  1. (transitive) to see

References edit

Yucatec Maya edit

Verb edit

il (transitive)

  1. to see
  2. to visit

Conjugation edit