See also: and 彿
U+4F5B, 佛
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F5B

[U+4F5A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F5C]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 9, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人中中弓 (OLLN), four-corner 25227, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 99, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 517
  • Dae Jaweon: page 208, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 140, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4F5B

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *bɯd) : semantic + phonetic (OC *pɯd).

Etymology 1

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Ji (1998v7) considers it likely borrowed from Iranian (compare Sogdian 𐼾𐼴𐽂𐼷 (pwty), 𐫁𐫇𐫤𐫏 (bwty /⁠Pute, Bute, βute⁠/), Middle Persian [Book Pahlavi needed] (bwt'), 𐫁𐫇𐫤 (bwt /⁠But⁠/), Parthian 𐫁𐫇𐫎 (bwṯ /⁠But, Butt⁠/)), ultimately from Sanskrit बुद्ध (buddha, awakened, enlightened, past passive participle), whence also 佛陀 (MC bjut da), but the Chinese morpheme is not a direct contraction or clipping of the latter.

Pronunciation

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Note: fiit6 - used in some compounds, e.g. 佛手, 佛七.
Note:
  • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Taiwan:
    • pu̍t - vernacular;
    • hu̍t - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /fo³⁵/
Harbin /fɤ²⁴/
Tianjin /fo⁴⁵/
Jinan /fə⁴²/
Qingdao /fu⁴²/
Zhengzhou /fu⁴²/
Xi'an /fo²⁴/
Xining /fɔ²⁴/
Yinchuan /fu¹³/
/fuə⁵³/
Lanzhou /fə⁵³/
Ürümqi /fɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /fu²¹³/
Chengdu /fu³¹/
/fəu³¹/
Guiyang /fu²¹/
Kunming /fu³¹/
Nanjing /fuʔ⁵/
Hefei /fəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /fəʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /xuʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /fɤ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /vəʔ¹/
Suzhou /vəʔ³/
Hangzhou /vəʔ²/
Wenzhou /vai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /fu²²/
Tunxi /fə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /fu²⁴/
Xiangtan /ɸu⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /fɨʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /fut̚⁵/
Taoyuan /fut̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /fɐt̚²/
Nanning /fɐt̚²²/
Hong Kong /fɐt̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /hut̚⁵/
/put̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /huʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /xo⁴⁴/
/xu²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /huk̚⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ʔbut̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (3)
Final () (60)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter bjut
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bɨut̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/biut̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/biuət̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/but̚/
Li
Rong
/biuət̚/
Wang
Li
/bĭuət̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱi̯uət̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
fat6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjut ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b][u]t/
English great

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3324
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bɯd/

Definitions

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  1. (Buddhism) Buddha; The Enlightened One
      ―  tuó  ―  Buddha
      ―  jiào  ―  Buddhism
  2. (Buddhism) statue of Buddha
  3. (by extension) Buddhist scriptures
  4. (by extension) Buddhism; Buddhist doctrines
Synonyms
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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():

Others:

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see 彿.
(This character is the simplified and variant traditional form of 彿).
Notes:

Etymology 3

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Alternative form of (, to go against; to be contrary to)

Compounds

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Etymology 4

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Alternative form of (, to assist)
  2. a surname

Etymology 5

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Alternative form of (, prosperous, thriving)

Etymology 6

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Dialectal pronunciation of (). Popularized by the streamer Sun Xiaochuan.

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Mainland China, Internet slang) Alternative form of (You win)

References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. Kyūjitai form of

Readings

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Definitions

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
5
[kanji] Grade 5 kanji
(This term, , is the kyūjitai of the above term.)

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC bjut).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 뿌ᇙ〮 (Yale: ppwúlq)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 부텨 (Yale: Pwùthyè) 불〮 (Yale: pwúl)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 부처 (bucheo bul))

  1. Hanja form? of (Buddha).
  2. Hanja form? of (France (in compounds, in news media)).

Compounds

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Proper noun

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Hanja in this term

(Bul) (hangeul )

  1. (in news headlines) Short for ()()西() (Bullanseo, France).

Usage notes

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A common convention in news headlines, this is almost always written solely in the Hanja form, even in contemporary Korean text otherwise devoid of any Hanja.

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Old Japanese

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Etymology

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Most likely from Proto-Koreanic *Pwutukye (Buddha).

Noun

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(poto₂ke₂) (kana ほとけ)

  1. (Buddhism) a carving, image, statue, or other likeness of a buddha
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 16, poem 3841:
      造眞朱不足者水渟池田乃阿曾我鼻上乎穿禮
      poto2ke2 tukuru ma-so2po tarazupa mi1du tamaru Ike2da no2 aso2 ga pana no2 upe2 wo pore
      For the Buddha statue, you lack enough vermilion―so there is the puddle of Lord “Pond Field” Ikeda, dig in that big red nose.[1]

Descendants

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  • Japanese: (hotoke)

References

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  1. ^ Jin'ichi Konishi (2017) Aileen Gatten, Nicholas Teele, transl., Earl Roy Miner, editor, A History of Japanese Literature, Volume 1: The Archaic and Ancient Ages (Volume 4935 of Princeton Legacy Library), Princeton University Press, →ISBN, page 415

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: phật ((phù)(vật)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], phất[3]
: Nôm readings: phật[1][2][3][4][6]

  1. chữ Hán form of Phật (Buddha, the Enlightened One).
  2. chữ Hán form of Phật (Buddhism).

Compounds

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References

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Zhuang

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Noun

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  1. Sawndip form of baed (Buddha; shrine; spirit; god)