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See also:
U+50D5, 僕
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-50D5

[U+50D4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+50D6]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han characterEdit

(radical 9, +12, 14 strokes, cangjie input 人廿金人 (OTCO), four-corner 22234, composition)

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 116, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1094
  • Dae Jaweon: page 247, character 30
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 218, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+50D5

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*baː, *pʰroːɡ, *poːɡ, *boːɡ
*pʰroːɡ
*pʰroːɡ, *pʰoːɡ
*broːɡ, *pʰoːɡ
*poːɡ, *buːɡ
*poːɡ
*poːɡ
*poːɡ, *boɡ
*poːɡ
*poːɡ
*pʰoːɡ
*boːɡ, *buːɡ
*boːɡ, *puɡ
*boːɡ
*buːɡ
*boɡ

In the oracle bone script and the early Western Zhou bronze script, it was a pictogram (象形) of a slave or prisoner, with hands holding a basket () to pick up garbage, an instrument of punishment () above the head, and a tail () to represent the slave's low status, akin to animals.

later corrupts into , the hands () move below , and the slave's body () moves to become the left component. Later, corrupts into (probably by fusing with ) and combines with to give (OC *boːɡ, *puɡ), which functions as a phonetic component.

In the current form, it is essentially a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *boːɡ, *buːɡ): semantic  (man) + phonetic  (OC *boːɡ, *puɡ).

EtymologyEdit

Probably related to Tibetan བུ (bu, son; boy) (Coblin, 1986).

Alternatively, Peiros and Starostin (1996) compare it to Tibetan ཕྲུག (phrug, child).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • pah5 - colloquial;
  • peh5 - literary.
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pʰu³⁵/
    Harbin /pʰu²¹³/
    Tianjin /pʰu⁴⁵/
    Jinan /pʰu⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /pʰu⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /pʰu⁵³/
    Xi'an /pʰu²⁴/
    Xining /pʰv̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /pʰu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /pʰu⁵³/
    Ürümqi /pʰu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /pʰu²¹³/
    Chengdu /pʰu³¹/
    Guiyang /pʰu²¹/
    Kunming /pʰu³¹/
    Nanjing /pʰuʔ⁵/
    Hefei /pʰəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /pʰaʔ²/
    Pingyao
    Hohhot /pʰaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /pʰoʔ⁵/ ~倒
    /boʔ¹/ ~人
    Suzhou /boʔ³/
    Hangzhou /boʔ²/
    Wenzhou /bo²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /pʰɔʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /pʰu⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /pʰu²⁴/
    Xiangtan /pʰu²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian /pʰuk̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /pʰuk̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pok̚²/ ~人
    /pʰok̚⁵/ ~低
    Nanning /pʰuk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /pok̚²/ ~人
    /pʰok̚⁵/ ~低
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pʰɔk̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /puʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pʰu²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /pʰok̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbok̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (3) (3)
    Final () (3) (6)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /buk̚/ /buok̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /buk̚/ /buok̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /buk̚/ /bok̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /bəwk̚/ /bawk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /buk̚/ /bok̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /buk̚/ /buok̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱuk̚/ /bʱuok̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ buwk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[b]ˁok/
    English charioteer, servant

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 9895 9899
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*boːɡ/ /*buːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. servant; slave (often male)
      /   ―  rén  ―  servant
    2. charioteer
    3. (literary, humble, men's speech) I; me; your humble servant
    4. to attach; to adhere
    5. A surname​.

    Coordinate termsEdit

    • (slave): (female) ()

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. I (masculine speech)
    2. manservant

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぼく
    Grade: S
    goon

    Shift in reading to use the on'yomi, becoming prevalent from around the Meiji period.[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぼく, rōmaji boku)

    1. manservant, servant
      Synonyms: 下僕 (geboku), 下男 (genan), (shimobe) (see below)

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana ぼく, katakana ボク, rōmaji boku)

    1. (men's speech) I; me (personal pronoun; usually used by males)
      • 1997 August 12, Maekawa, Takeshi, “なるだいへのまき [To the Strange Land]”, in しんてっけんチンミ [New Ironfist Chinmi], volume 1 (fiction), Tokyo: Kodansha, →ISBN, page 32:
        ぼくぼく (なん) (こう) (ざん) (だい) (りん) ()からちょっとした (よう)で…
        Boku? Boku wa Nankō-zan Dairin-ji kara chotto shita yō de…
        Me? I was sent by the Dairin Temple on Mount Nankō...
      • 2003 September 22, Uraku, Akinobu, “だい61 いとしきもののため [Chapter 61: All for Our Loved Ones]”, in とうきょうアンダーグラウンド [Tokyo Underground], volume 11 (fiction), Square Enix, →ISBN, page 48:
         (むかし) (ぼく)とは (ちが)
        Mukashi no boku to wa chigau
        I am not what I used to be.
      • Yamazaki, Kore, “第1篇 April showers bring May flowers. [Composition 1: April showers bring May flowers.]”, in 魔法使いの嫁The Ancient Magus Bride [The Ancient Magus’ Bride], volume 1 (fiction), Tokyo: Mag Garden, page 20:
        きみ魔法使いぼくとしてかんげいするよ 死の愛し仔スレイ・ベガ…いや チセ
        Kimi o boku no deshi to shite kangei suru yo Surei Bega… iya Chise
        You are welcome as my apprentice, Sleigh Beggey... I mean, Chise.
    2. you, he, she (only used in reference to a person who uses this term to refer to themselves, or is one who is assumed to use it, such as a young boy)

    Usage notesEdit

    • This is an example of a word that can be spelled with katakana to convey an informal conversational tone, as ボク.
    • If used by an adult male, semi-formal; in formal conversation is preferred.

    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しもべ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Originally a compound of (shimo, lower) +‎ (be, servant to the imperial court).[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana しもべ, rōmaji shimobe)

    1. manservant, servant
      忠実 (ちゅうじつ) (しもべ)
      chūjitsu na shimobe
      a faithful servant
      Synonyms: 下僕 (geboku), 下男 (genan), (boku) (see above)
    2. a man of low social status
    3. a low-ranking civil servant

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eum (bok))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: bộc, bọc

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit