See also:
U+50D5, 僕
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-50D5

[U+50D4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+50D6]

Translingual

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Japanese
Simplified
Traditional
Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 9, +12, 14 strokes, cangjie input 人廿金人 (OTCO), four-corner 22234, composition )

Derived terms

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 116, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1094
  • Dae Jaweon: page 247, character 30
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 218, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+50D5

Chinese

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trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

In the oracle bone script and the early Western Zhou bronze script, it was a pictogram (象形) of a slave or prisoner, with hands holding a basket () to pick up garbage, an instrument of punishment () above the head, and a tail () to represent the slave's low status, akin to animals.

later corrupts into , the hands () move below , and the slave's body () moves to become the left component. Later, corrupts into (probably by fusing with ) and combines with to give (OC *boːɡ, *puɡ), which functions as a phonetic component.

In the current form, it is essentially a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *boːɡ, *buːɡ) : semantic (man) + phonetic (OC *boːɡ, *puɡ).

Etymology

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Probably related to Tibetan བུ (bu, son; boy) (Coblin, 1986).

Alternatively, Peiros and Starostin (1996) compare it to Tibetan ཕྲུག (phrug, child).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • pah5 - colloquial;
  • peh5 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pʰu³⁵/
Harbin /pʰu²¹³/
Tianjin /pʰu⁴⁵/
Jinan /pʰu⁵⁵/
Qingdao /pʰu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /pʰu⁵³/
Xi'an /pʰu²⁴/
Xining /pʰv̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /pʰu⁵³/
Lanzhou /pʰu⁵³/
Ürümqi /pʰu⁵¹/
Wuhan /pʰu²¹³/
Chengdu /pʰu³¹/
Guiyang /pʰu²¹/
Kunming /pʰu³¹/
Nanjing /pʰuʔ⁵/
Hefei /pʰəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /pʰaʔ²/
Pingyao
Hohhot /pʰaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /pʰoʔ⁵/ ~倒
/boʔ¹/ ~人
Suzhou /boʔ³/
Hangzhou /boʔ²/
Wenzhou /bo²¹³/
Hui Shexian /pʰɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /pʰu⁵/
Xiang Changsha /pʰu²⁴/
Xiangtan /pʰu²⁴/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /pʰuk̚⁵/
Taoyuan /pʰuk̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pok̚²/ ~人
/pʰok̚⁵/ ~低
Nanning /pʰuk̚²²/
Hong Kong /pok̚²/ ~人
/pʰok̚⁵/ ~低
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /pʰɔk̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /puʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /pʰu²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /pʰok̚²/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ʔbok̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (3) (3)
Final () (3) (6)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Baxter buwk bowk
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/buk̚/ /buok̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/buk̚/ /buok̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/buk̚/ /bok̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bəwk̚/ /bawk̚/
Li
Rong
/buk̚/ /bok̚/
Wang
Li
/buk̚/ /buok̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱuk̚/ /bʱuok̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
buk6 buk6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ buwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]ˁok/
English charioteer, servant

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 9895 9899
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*boːɡ/ /*buːɡ/

Definitions

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  1. servant; slave (often male)
      ―  rén  ―  servant
  2. (literary, humble, men's speech) I; me; your humble servant
  3. (obsolete) coachman; groom
  4. (obsolete) to attach; to adhere
  5. a surname

Coordinate terms

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  • (slave): (female) ()

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. I (masculine speech)
  2. manservant

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
ぼく
Grade: S
goon

Shift in reading to use the on'yomi, becoming prevalent from around the Meiji period.[1][2]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ぼく) (boku

  1. manservant, servant
    Synonyms: 下僕 (geboku), 下男 (genan), (see below) (shimobe)

Pronoun

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(ぼく) or (ボク) (boku

  1. (men's speech) I; me (personal pronoun; usually used by males; implies that the speaker is a young boy or otherwise boyish)
  2. you, he, she (only used in reference to a person who uses this term to refer to themselves, or is one who is assumed to use it, such as a young boy)
    (ぼく)(まい)()かな
    Boku, maigo kana?
    Hi boy, are you lost?
    (ぼく)いくつかな?
    Boku wa ikutsu kana?
    How old are you?

Usage notes

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  • If used by an adult male, semi-formal; in formal conversation (watashi) is preferred.

See also

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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
しもべ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Originally a compound of (shimo, lower) +‎ (be, servant to the imperial court).[1][2]

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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(しもべ) (shimobe

  1. manservant, servant
    Synonyms: 下僕 (geboku), 下男 (genan), (see above) (boku)
    忠実(ちゅうじつ)(しもべ)
    chūjitsu na shimobe
    a faithful servant
  2. a man of low social status
  3. a low-ranking civil servant

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
やつがれ
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
やつがれ
[pronoun] (humble, men's speech, somewhat dated) I, me
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja

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(eum (bok))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: bộc, bọc

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

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