See also:
U+66B4, 暴
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-66B4

[U+66B3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+66B5]
U+FA06, 暴
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA06

[U+FA05]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA07]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 72, +11, 15 strokes, cangjie input 日廿金水 (ATCE), four-corner 60132, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 499, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14137
  • Dae Jaweon: page 868, character 35
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1532, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+66B4

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Ideogrammic compound (會意) – originally (in oracle script) the antler of a buck (at bottom), indicating a savage attack. Subsequently significantly simplified and abstracted: in seal script analyzed as  +  +  + , while in current form rather  +  +  (similar to unrelated ); compare bottom component to bottom right of . In the Liushutong, it is analyzed as  + 鹿 + , a salivating savage deer.

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (3) (3)
Final () (89) (3)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bɑuH/ /buk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/bɑuH/ /buk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/bɑuH/ /buk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bawH/ /bəwk̚/
Li
Rong
/bɑuH/ /buk̚/
Wang
Li
/bɑuH/ /buk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱɑuH/ /bʱuk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bào
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bào
Middle
Chinese
‹ bawH › ‹ buwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]ˁawk-s/ /*m-pˁawk/
English violent expose to sun

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 330 343
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*boːwɢs/ /*boːɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. sudden
  2. violent; cruel; brutal; tyrannical
  3. to show; to expose
  4. to injure

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (ぼう) ()
  • Korean: (, pok)
  • Vietnamese: bạo ()

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to stick out; to bulge”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. violent; brutal; fierce

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Kanji in this term
ぼう
Grade: 5
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC bɑuH, “violent”).

PronunciationEdit

Adjectival nounEdit

(ぼう) (-na (adnominal (ぼう) (bō na), adverbial (ぼう) (bō ni))

  1. violent

InflectionEdit

NounEdit

(ぼう) (

  1. violentness

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC buk̚, “to expose to the sun”).

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 나타날 (natanal pok))
(eumhun 드러날 (deureonal pok))

  1. (only in compounds) Hanja form? of (fierce; violent; brutal).
  2. (literary Chinese) Hanja form? of (to show; to appear; to manifest).
Usage notesEdit

The original hanja reading for the sense "fierce; violent; brutal" is (po) based on Middle Chinese (MC bɑuH). The reading (pok) for this sense is a 속음 (俗音, sogeum, “unorthodox reading that became widespread”).

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC bɑuH, “violent”).

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 사나울 (sanaul po))

  1. Hanja form? of (fierce; violent; brutal).
CompoundsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 앙상할 (angsanghal bak))

  1. (literary Chinese) Hanja form? of (sparse; bare; thin; skinny).
CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Việt readings: bạo ((bạc)(báo)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], bộc ((bộ)(mộc)(thiết))[3][5]
: Nôm readings: bạo[1][2][3][4][6], bão[1][2][7], bộc[7][5], bậu[1], bẹo[3]

  1. Hán tự form of bạo (ferocious; cruel; violent).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit