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See also: , , and 𡕒
U+5E74, 年
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5E74

[U+5E73]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5E75]
U+F98E, 年
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F98E

[U+F98D]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F98F]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 51, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人手 (OQ), four-corner 80500, composition𠂉 or ⿻ or ⿻)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 340, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9168
  • Dae Jaweon: page 648, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 37, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5E74

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
                 

In the oracle bone script and early bronze inscriptions, it was originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *niːŋ): semantic  (wheat; grain) + phonetic  (OC *njin, person) – a person carrying wheat on his back – harvest.

In bronze inscriptions after the Western Zhou period, a stroke was often added to to give (OC *sn̥ʰiːn), which still acted as a phonetic component, and this form () was inherited by later scripts. The current form is inherited from the clerical script, where libian (隸變) has occurred.

EtymologyEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ni(ː)ŋ ~ *s-nik (year).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • nî - vernacular;
  • liân - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nian³⁵/
    Harbin /nian²⁴/
    Tianjin /nian⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ȵiã⁴²/
    Qingdao /niã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /nian⁴²/
    Xi'an /niã²⁴/
    Xining /ȵiã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /nian⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ȵiɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ȵian⁵¹/
    Wuhan /niɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /ȵian³¹/
    Guiyang /nian²¹/
    Kunming /niɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /lien²⁴/
    Hefei /liĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /nie¹¹/
    Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /nie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
    Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ne⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /ȵiẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nin²¹/
    Nanning /nin²¹/
    Hong Kong /nin²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lian³⁵/
    /ni³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nieŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nĩ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nin³¹/
    /hi³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nen/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nen/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɛn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nɛn/
    Li
    Rong
    /nen/
    Wang
    Li
    /nien/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nien/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nián
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.nˁi[ŋ]/
    English harvest; year

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9482
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*niːŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. year (in generic contexts)
      2012  ―  2012 nián  ―  the year of 2012
    2. harvest
    3. annual
    4. age
    5. period of life
        ―  tóngnián  ―  childhood
    6. period (in history)
    7. New Year
      /   ―  guònián  ―  to pass the New Year
    8. things for the New Year
    9. Classifier for years.
      / [Cantonese]  ―  loeng5 nin4 cin4 [Jyutping]  ―  two years ago
    10. A surname​.

    Usage notesEdit

    • Although is the generic term for year, years of age are typically expressed in (suì), a separate system based on the duodecennial orbital period of Jupiter. Ages in (suì) are traditionally reckoned using the Chinese lunar calendar, beginning with 1 at the moment of birth and increasing not during birthdays but at the Chinese New Year.

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ねん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (nen, year). Compare modern Mandarin reading nián, Hakka ngièn, Cantonese nin4.

    PronunciationEdit

    CounterEdit

    (hiragana ねん, rōmaji -nen)

    1. years

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ねん, rōmaji nen)

    1. a year
       (ねん)一度 (いちど)
      nen ni ichido
      once a year

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana ねん, rōmaji -nen)

    1. a grade, a school year
       (かれ)中学2 (ちゅうがくに) (ねん)だ。
      Kare wa chūgaku ni-nen da.
      He's in the second grade in junior high school.
    2. a year
       () (せん) () () (ねん) (はし)建設 (けんせつ) (はじ)めるようだ。
      Nisen-hachi-nen ni hashi o kensetsu shi hajimeru yō da.
      It seems like they will start constructing the bridge in (the year) 2008.

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    とし
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /to2si/ invalid IPA characters (2)/tosi//toɕi/

    From Old Japanese. Originally referred to grain, particularly rice, and by extension, the year's harvest.[2]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana とし, rōmaji toshi)

    1. (obsolete) grain, particularly rice
    2. (obsolete) a grain harvest, a grain crop
    3. a year
    4. age

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    とせ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /to2se/ invalid IPA characters (2)/tose/

    From Old Japanese.[2] Likely a shift in pronunciation from toshi.

    PronunciationEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana とせ, rōmaji -tose)

    1. (obsolete) used to count years
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 880), text [1]:
         () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () ()
        Amazakaru, hina ni itsu tose, sumahitsutsu, miyako no teburi, wasuraenikeri
        While living five years in the far-remote countryside, I wound up forgetting the manners of the capital

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (hae nyeon), South Korea (hae yeon))

    1. year

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    NounEdit

    (nên, năm, niên)

    1. year