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See also: , , and 𡕒
U+5E74, 年
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5E74

[U+5E73]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5E75]
U+F98E, 年
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F98E

[U+F98D]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F98F]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 51, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人手 (OQ), four-corner 80500, composition𠂉 or ⿻ or ⿻)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 340, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9168
  • Dae Jaweon: page 648, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 37, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5E74

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
                 

In the oracle bone script and early bronze inscriptions, it was originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *niːŋ): semantic  (wheat; grain) + phonetic  (OC *njin, person) – a person carrying wheat on his back – harvest.

In bronze inscriptions after the Western Zhou period, a stroke was often added to to give (OC *sn̥ʰiːn), which still acted as a phonetic component, and this form () was inherited by later scripts. The current form is inherited from the clerical script, where libian (隸變) has occurred.

EtymologyEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ni(ː)ŋ ~ *s-nik (year).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • nî - vernacular;
  • liân - literary.
Note: hin5 - Chaoyang (in some compounds).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nian³⁵/
Harbin /nian²⁴/
Tianjin /nian⁴⁵/
Jinan /ȵiã⁴²/
Qingdao /niã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nian⁴²/
Xi'an /niã²⁴/
Xining /ȵiã²⁴/
Yinchuan /nian⁵³/
Lanzhou /ȵiɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ȵian⁵¹/
Wuhan /niɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵian³¹/
Guiyang /nian²¹/
Kunming /niɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /lien²⁴/
Hefei /liĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /nie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /nie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nin²¹/
Nanning /nin²¹/
Hong Kong /nin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lian³⁵/
/ni³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /nĩ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /nin³¹/
/hi³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nen/
Pan
Wuyun
/nen/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɛn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nɛn/
Li
Rong
/nen/
Wang
Li
/nien/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nien/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nián
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nián
Middle
Chinese
‹ nen ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.nˁi[ŋ]/
English harvest; year

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9482
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*niːŋ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. year (in generic contexts)
    2012  ―  2012 nián  ―  the year of 2012
  2. harvest
  3. annual
  4. age
  5. period of life
      ―  tóngnián  ―  childhood
  6. period (in history)
  7. New Year
    /   ―  guònián  ―  to pass the New Year
  8. things for the New Year
  9. Classifier for years.
    / [Cantonese]  ―  loeng5 nin4 cin4 [Jyutping]  ―  two years ago
  10. A surname​.

Usage notesEdit

  • Although is the generic term for year, years of age are typically expressed in (suì), a separate system based on the duodecennial orbital period of Jupiter. Ages in (suì) are traditionally reckoned using the Chinese lunar calendar, beginning with 1 at the moment of birth and increasing not during birthdays but at the Chinese New Year.

See alsoEdit

CompoundsEdit


Further readingEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ねん
Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (nen, year). Compare modern Mandarin reading nián, Hakka ngièn, Cantonese nin4.

PronunciationEdit

CounterEdit

(hiragana ねん, rōmaji -nen)

  1. years
See alsoEdit
Japanese number-counter combinations for  (ねん) (nen)
1 2 3 4 5
 (いち) (ねん) (ichinen)  () (ねん) (ninen)  (さん) (ねん) (sannen)  () (ねん) (yonen)  () (ねん) (gonen)
6 7 8 9 10
 (ろく) (ねん) (rokunen)  (なな) (ねん) (nananen)
 (しち) (ねん) (shichinen)
 (はち) (ねん) (hachinen)  (きゅう) (ねん) (kyūnen)
 () (ねん) (kunen)
 (じゅう) (ねん) (jūnen)
100 1,000 10,000 How many?
What year?
 (ひゃく) (ねん) (hyakunen)  (せん) (ねん) (sennen)  (いち) (まん) (ねん) (ichimannen)  (なん) (ねん) (nannen)

NounEdit

(hiragana ねん, rōmaji nen)

  1. a year
     (ねん) (いち) ()
    nen ni ichido
    once a year

SuffixEdit

(hiragana ねん, rōmaji -nen)

  1. a grade, a school year
     (かれ) (ちゅう) (がく) () (ねん)だ。
    Kare wa chūgaku ni-nen da.
    He's in the second year in junior high school.
    • 1984 February 15, Murakami, Motoka, “いちねんいちくみらんまき [Class-1 Freshmen, Musashi and Ranko]”, in けん [Musashi’s Sword], volume 13 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, pages 142–144:
      な、なんだおまえら⁉
      Na, nan da o-maera⁉
      Wh-Who the hell are you!?
       (いち) (ねん) (いち) (くみ)っ‼ (なつ) () () () ()ぃ‼
      Ichi-nen ichi-kumi'‼ Natsuki Musashī‼
      Class-1 freshman!! Musashi Natsuki!!
       (おな)じく (とどろき) (らん) ()
      Onajiku Todoroki Ranko!
      Same here, Ranko Todoroki!
  2. a year
    2008 (にせんはち) (ねん) (はし) (けん) (せつ) (はじ)めるようだ。
    Nisen-hachi-nen ni hashi o kensetsu shi hajimeru yō da.
    It seems like they will start constructing the bridge in (the year) 2008.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
とし
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

/to2si/ → /tosi/ → /toɕi/

From Old Japanese. Originally referred to grain, particularly rice, and by extension, the year's harvest.[2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana とし, rōmaji toshi)

  1. (obsolete) grain, particularly rice
  2. (obsolete) a grain harvest, a grain crop
  3. a year
  4. age

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
とせ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

/to2se/ → /tose/

From Old Japanese.[2] Likely a shift in pronunciation from toshi.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana とせ, rōmaji -tose)

  1. (obsolete) used to count years
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 880), text [1]:
       () () () () ()比奈尓伊都 (ひなにいつ) () ()周麻比都都 (すまひつつ)美夜故能提夫利 (みやこのてぶり)和周良延尓家利 (わすらえにけり)
      Amazakaru, hina ni itsu tose, sumahitsutsu, miyako no teburi, wasuraenikeri
      While living five years in the far-remote countryside, I wound up forgetting the manners of the capital

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun (hae nyeon), South Korea (hae yeon))

  1. year

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit