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ChineseEdit

 
all together; in while; to share; common; general; together; total
 
mix together; peace; harmony; and; with; union; cap (a poem); respond in singing; soft; warm
simp. and trad.
(共和)
 
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EtymologyEdit

Gonghe Regency
Traditionally interpreted as "joint harmony", as during the Gonghe regency, the Zhou Dynasty was considered to be ruled jointly by two dukes; but according to the Bamboo Annals, the Gonghe regency was ruled by a single person—the Count of Gong (共伯), whose name was He (). This reading has almost certainly been confirmed by a bronze inscription.[1]
republic
Wasei kango (和製漢語), orthographically borrowed from Japanese  (きょう) () (kyōwa, republicanism), which was in turn a semantic readaptation of Chinese 共和 (gònghé, “Gonghe Regency”) (see above).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/2
Initial () (30) (33)
Final () (7) (95)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () III I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡɨoŋH/ /ɦuɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡioŋH/ /ɦuɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡioŋH/ /ɣuɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/guawŋH/ /ɦwa/
Li
Rong
/ɡioŋH/ /ɣuɑ/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭwoŋH/ /ɣuɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯woŋH/ /ɣuɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiòng huó
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjowngH › ‹ hwa ›
Old
Chinese
/*N-k(r)oŋʔ-s/ /*[ɢ]ˁoj/
English together, all harmonious

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/2
No. 4182 4932
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡloŋs/ /*ɡoːl/

NounEdit

共和

  1. republicanism; republic

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (共和):

See alsoEdit

Proper nounEdit

共和

  1. (historical) Gonghe Regency (interregnum period in Chinese history from 841 to 828 BCE)
  2. () Gonghe County (county in Qinghai province, China)

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

EtymologyEdit

Kanji in this term
きょう
Grade: 4

Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 共和 (gjowngH hwa)

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

共和 (hiragana きょうわ, rōmaji kyōwa)

  1. collaboration; cooperation; working together in harmony
  2. republicanism

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

HanjaEdit

共和 (gonghwa) (hangeul 공화)

  1. Hanja form? of 공화 (universal harmony, republicanism).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

NounEdit

共和

  1. Hán tự form of cộng hoà (republic).