U+6B7B, 死
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6B7B

[U+6B7A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6B7C]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

Stroke order
 

(radical 78, +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一弓心 (MNP), four-corner 10212, composition or ⿱)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 578, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16365
  • Dae Jaweon: page 970, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1380, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+6B7B

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𣦸
𣦹
𠒁 ancient
𠑾 ancient
𦭀 ancient

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + .

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *səj.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sei2 - vernacular;
  • si2 - literary (rare).
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • sí - vernacular;
    • sú/sír - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 2xi - vernacular;
    • 2sr - literary.
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (17)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sˠiɪX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sᵚiX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /siɪX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sjiX/
    Li
    Rong
    /sjiX/
    Wang
    Li
    /siX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /siX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sijX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sijʔ/
    English die (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12006
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljiʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to die; death; dead
      已經 [Cantonese, trad.]
      已经 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Keoi5 loeng5 nin4 cin4 ji5 ging1 sei2 zo2. [Jyutping]
      He already died two years ago.
      高校學生食堂老鼠 [MSC, trad.]
      高校学生食堂老鼠 [MSC, simp.]
      Gāoxiào xuéshēng shítáng chī chū lǎoshǔ. [Pinyin]
      A dead mouse was found in college cafeteria food.
    2. inactive
      /   ―  jié  ―  encased knot
      /   ―    ―  (of a computer system) to crash
      垃圾  ―  Lù bèi lājī dǔ le.  ―  The road is blocked by trash.
    3. (only in compounds) deadly; fatal; killing
        ―  xíng  ―  capital punishment
      /   ―  zhàn  ―  deadly battle
    4. (colloquial or Teochew) very; bloody; totally
        ―  Wǒ lèi le.  ―  I'm dead tired.
      [Cantonese]  ―  Cou4 sei2! [Jyutping]  ―  Keep it down! (lit. You're being really noisy!)
      / [Teochew]  ―  ruah8 si2 [Peng'im]  ―  really hot
    5. (offensive) damned; damn
      呢個阿伯唔識揸車 [Cantonese, trad.]
      呢个阿伯唔识揸车 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Nei1 go3 sei2 aa3 baak3 m4 sik1 zaa1 ce1. [Jyutping]
      This damn geezer can't drive.
      鬼佬 [Cantonese]  ―  sei2 gwai2 lou2 [Jyutping]  ―  goddamn white
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      Zou6 zo2 gam3 sei2 do1 ci3, ngo5 zung6 m4 sik1 zou6 me1? [Jyutping]
      I've done it so darn many times already, and you think I wouldn't know how to do it by now?
    6. (slang, offensive) to disappear; to go; (as in "where the hell did ... go")
      死人原子筆 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
      𠮶死人原子笔 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
      Go2 zi1 sei2 jan4 jyun4 zi2 bat1 sei2 zo2 heoi3 bin1 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Where's that goddamn pen?
      這個死人哪裡手機 [MSC, trad.]
      这个死人哪里手机 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ zhège sǐrén dào nǎlǐ qù le, dǎ shǒujī yě bù jiē. [Pinyin]
      Where the hell have you been? Why are you not answering my calls? (said by wife)
      佢哋今次 [Cantonese, trad.]
      佢哋今次 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Keoi5 dei6 gam1 ci3 sei2 zo2 heoi3 bin1 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Where'd they fuck off to this time?
    7. (Cantonese) persistently; stubbornly
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      Keoi5 sei2 dou1 m4 hang2 gong2. [Jyutping]
      He absolutely refuses to speak. (lit. He is persistently not willing to say it.)
      三十 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      Ni1 fan6 gung1 keoi5 zou6 sei2 saam1 sap6 nin4. [Jyutping]
      He has been stubbornly doing this job for thirty years.
    8. (Cantonese) awful
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      From: 黄俊英《肥仔米》
      Lung4 ge3! Sei2 m4 sei2 aa3? [Jyutping]
      [He's] deaf! Isn't that awful?

    Usage notesEdit

    • The adjective ("dead, inactive, etc.") cannot be used as a predicative adjective. The sentence *這隻狗死 generally does not mean "This dog is dead". For the meaning "is dead", usually the verb in the perfect aspect ("to have died") is used instead:
      /   ―  Zhè zhī gǒu le.  ―  This dog has died.
    • The verb ("to die") lacks a present meaning and denotes either past (in perfect aspect) or future (not in perfect aspect) events. It cannot be modified by the progressive aspect marker 正在 (zhèngzài) or (zhe).
        ―    ―  "will not die", immortal
      /   ―  méi   ―  "did not die", alive

    SynonymsEdit

    • (to die):

    See alsoEdit

    • (intensifier) (guǐ)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (shi)
    • Korean: (, sa)
    • Vietnamese: tử ()

    Others:

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    on’yomi
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    /si//ɕi/

    Appears to be a conflation of Middle Chinese (MC sˠiɪX), with an Old Japanese root that happened to have a similar pronunciation to the Middle Chinese and was probably cognate with 去る (saru, to go, to go away). Compare modern Mandarin ().

    In kanji compounds, this would be considered as 音読み (on'yomi, Sino-Japanese reading); but on its own, this could be considered as either on'yomi or 訓読み (kun'yomi, native Japanese reading).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (shi

    1. death
      ()(いた)(やまい)
      Shi ni Itaru Yamai
      The Sickness Unto Death
      Antonym: (sei)
    2. (law, historical) one of the five punishments under the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system, the methods used are (, strangling) and (zan, decapitation)

    Derived termsEdit

    AffixEdit

    () (shi

    1. death, to die
    2. dead, unfunctional
    3. life-or-death situation
    4. dangerous, life-threatening
    5. (baseball) out

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 죽을 (jugeul sa))

    1. die
    2. death

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit


    Old JapaneseEdit

    EtymologyEdit

      This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Particularly: “From Proto-Japonic *si?”

    Appears to be a conflation of an s- root cognate with 去る (saru, to go, go away) and Middle Chinese (MC sˠiɪX).

    NounEdit

    (si) (kana )

    1. death
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, preface to poem 897: melancholic poem by Yamanoue no Okura)
        帛公略說曰:「伏思自勵,以斯長生。生可貪也,畏也。...」
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Derived termsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Japanese: (shi)

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (tử, long)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    CompoundsEdit