U+6B7B, 死
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6B7B

[U+6B7A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6B7C]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

Stroke order
 

(Kangxi radical 78, +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一弓心 (MNP), four-corner 10212, composition or )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 578, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16365
  • Dae Jaweon: page 970, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1380, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+6B7B

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
 
𣦸
𣦹
𠒁 ancient
𠑾 ancient
𦭀 ancient
𣦸
𣦹
𠒁 ancient
𠑾 ancient
𦭀 ancient
𦫺
𤯽
𣥴
  A user suggests that this Chinese entry be cleaned up, giving the reason: “list of senses is too long and should be grouped for readability”.
Please see the discussion on Requests for cleanup(+) or the talk page for more information and remove this template after the problem has been dealt with.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : + .

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *səj.

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • sei2 - vernacular;
  • si2 - literary (rare).
Note:
  • sī - vernacular;
  • sṳ̄ - literary.
Note:
  • sí - vernacular;
  • sú/sír - literary.
Note:
  • 2xi - vernacular;
  • 2sr - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (17)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter sijX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sˠiɪX/
Pan
Wuyun
/sᵚiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/siɪX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sjiX/
Li
Rong
/sjiX/
Wang
Li
/siX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/siX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
si2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ sijX ›
Old
Chinese
/*sijʔ/
English die (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12006
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljiʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. (intransitive) to die
    無疑无疑  ―  wúyí  ―  will die without a doubt
    已經 [Cantonese, trad.]
    已经 [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 loeng5 nin4 cin4 ji5 ging1 sei2 zo2. [Jyutping]
    He already died two years ago.
    高校學生食堂老鼠 [MSC, trad.]
    高校学生食堂老鼠 [MSC, simp.]
    Gāoxiào xuéshēng shítáng chī chū lǎoshǔ. [Pinyin]
    A dead mouse was found in college cafeteria food.
    自己 [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 sei2 zi6 gei2 [Jyutping]  ―  to "eat oneself to death" (endanger oneself with eating habits)
    噉樣 [Cantonese, trad.]
    噉样 [Cantonese, simp.]
    nei5 gam2 joeng6-2 baai2 wui5 dit3 sei2 jan4. [Jyutping]
    Placing it so is a serious tripping hazard.
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    go2 si4 sei2 zo2 m4 siu2 jan4. [Jyutping]
    A number of people died at the time.
    1. (transitive) to die for the sake of; to sacrifice oneself for; to die together with someone
        ―  jié  ―  to die for honour
  2. inactive
      ―  jié  ―  encased knot
      ―    ―  (of a computer system) to crash
    垃圾 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Lù bèi lājī dǔ le. [Pinyin]
    The road is blocked by trash.
  3. (only in compounds) deadly; fatal; killing; to the death
      ―  xíng  ―  capital punishment
      ―  zhàn  ―  deadly battle; fight to the death
  4. (colloquial) very; bloody; totally
      ―  Wǒ lèi le.  ―  I'm dead tired.
    [Cantonese]  ―  cou4 sei2! [Jyutping]  ―  Keep it down! (lit. You're being really noisy!)
    [Teochew]  ―  ruah8 si2 [Peng'im]  ―  really hot
  5. (offensive) damned; damn
    呢個阿伯唔識揸車 [Cantonese, trad.]
    呢个阿伯唔识揸车 [Cantonese, simp.]
    nei1 go3 sei2 aa3 baak3 m4 sik1 zaa1 ce1. [Jyutping]
    This damn geezer can't drive.
    鬼佬 [Cantonese]  ―  sei2 gwai2 lou2 [Jyutping]  ―  goddamn white
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    zou6 zo2 gam3 sei2 do1 ci3, ngo5 zung6 m4 sik1 zou6 me1? [Jyutping]
    I've done it so darn many times already, and you think I wouldn't know how to do it by now?
  6. (slang, offensive) to disappear; to go; (as in "where the hell did ... go")
    死人原子筆 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    死人原子笔 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    go2 zi1 sei2 jan4 jyun4 zi2 bat1 sei2 zo2 heoi3 bin1 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Where's that goddamn pen?
    這個死人哪裡手機 [MSC, trad.]
    这个死人哪里手机 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ zhège sǐrén dào nǎlǐ qù le, dǎ shǒujī yě bù jiē. [Pinyin]
    Where the hell have you been? Why are you not answering my calls? (said by wife)
    佢哋今次 [Cantonese, trad.]
    佢哋今次 [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 dei6 gam1 ci3 sei2 zo2 heoi3 bin1 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Where'd they fuck off to this time?
    屋企 [Cantonese]  ―  sei2 faan1 uk1 kei2 [Jyutping]  ―  to fuck off back to one's home
  7. (Cantonese, Southern Min) persistently; stubbornly
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 sei2 dou1 m4 hang2 gong2. [Jyutping]
    He absolutely refuses to speak. (lit. He is persistently not willing to say it.)
    三十 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    ni1 fan6 gung1 keoi5 zou6 sei2 saam1 sap6 nin4. [Jyutping]
    He has been stubbornly doing this job for thirty years.
  8. (Cantonese) screwed
    [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    zou6 jau6 sei2, m4 zou6 jau6 sei2 [Jyutping]
    screwed if I do, screwed if I don't
  9. (Cantonese) awful
    [Cantonese]  ―  sei2 lo3! [Jyutping]  ―  Oh no!
  10. (Southern Min) closely; firmly; tightly

Usage notes edit

  • The adjective ("dead, inactive, etc.") cannot be used as a predicative adjective. The sentence *這隻狗死 generally does not mean "This dog is dead". For the meaning "is dead", usually the verb in the perfect aspect ("to have died") is used instead:
      ―  Zhè zhī gǒu le.  ―  This dog has died.
  • The verb ("to die") lacks a present meaning and denotes either past (in perfect aspect) or future (not in perfect aspect) events. It cannot be modified by the progressive aspect marker 正在 (zhèngzài) or (zhe).
      ―    ―  "will not die", immortal
      ―  méi   ―  "did not die", alive

Synonyms edit

  • (to die):

Antonyms edit

  • (antonym(s) of "to die"): (huó)

See also edit

  • (intensifier) (guǐ)

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (shi)
  • Korean: 사(死) (sa)
  • Vietnamese: tử ()

Others:

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Etymology edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on’yomi
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

/si//ɕi/

Appears to be a conflation of Middle Chinese (MC sijX), with an Old Japanese root that happened to have a similar pronunciation to the Middle Chinese and was probably cognate with 去る (saru, to go, to go away). Compare modern Mandarin ().

In kanji compounds, this would be considered as on'yomi; but on its own, this could be considered as either on'yomi or kun'yomi.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

() (shi

  1. death
    Antonym: (sei)
    ()(いた)(やまい)
    Shi ni Itaru Yamai”
    The Sickness unto Death
  2. (law, historical) one of the five punishments under the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system, the methods used are (, strangling) and (zan, decapitation)

Derived terms edit

Affix edit

() (shi

  1. death, to die
  2. dead, unfunctional
  3. life-or-death situation
  4. dangerous, life-threatening
  5. (baseball) out

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  3. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC sijX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᄉᆞᆼ〯 (Yale: )
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 주글〮 (Yale: cwùkúl) ᄉᆞ〯 (Yale: )

Pronunciation edit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [sʰa̠(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 죽을 (jugeul sa))

  1. Hanja form? of (death). [noun, affix]

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Okinawan edit

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Old Japanese edit

Etymology edit

This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “From Proto-Japonic *si?”

Appears to be a conflation of an s- root cognate with 去る (saru, to go, go away) and Middle Chinese (MC sijX).

Noun edit

(si) (kana )

  1. death
    • (book 5, preface to poem 897: melancholic poem by Yamanoue no Okura)
      帛公略說曰:「伏思自勵,以斯長生。生可貪也,畏也。...」
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Japanese: (shi)

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: tử, long

  1. death

Compounds edit