See also: and
U+4F2F, 伯
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F2F

[U+4F2E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F30]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 9, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人竹日 (OHA), four-corner 26200, composition )

Derived characters

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Further reading

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 96, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 466
  • Dae Jaweon: page 204, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 136, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4F2F

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Spring and Autumn Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *praːɡ) : semantic (person) + phonetic (OC *braːɡ).

Etymology 1

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Unclear. Possibly an areal word (Schuessler, 2007). Compare Mru [script needed] (rak, eldest brother) and Kukish prak (eldest brother) (Löffler, 1966), as well as Lahu phâ (god; lord) < Thai พระ (prá) < Old Khmer bra or Angkorian Old Khmer braḥ, braḥh, brah (distinguished; divine; excellent; holy; sacred; superior; etc.) (see Khmer ព្រះ (preăh) for more).

Possibly related to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bʷaŋ ~ *pʷaŋ ((paternal) uncle; elder brother), in turn possibly related to (OC *hmraŋ, “elder brother”) (Benedict, 1972).

Alternatively, from (OC *braːɡ, “white”); compare (OC *paːl, *baːl, “white”), which underwent parallel semantic shift to "white-haired", though this is possibly folk etymology (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 2 is the exoactive/transitive of pronunciation 1 (ibid.).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • bǎi - vernacular (“husband’s elder brother”, e.g. 大伯子);
  • bāi - vernacular in some words (伯伯).
Note:
  • peh - vernacular;
  • pek/piak - literary, surname;
  • phek - literary (limited, e.g. 山伯);
  • pit - only used in 伯勞.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (113)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter paek
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pˠæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/pᵚak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/pak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/paɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/pɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/pɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
bak1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*pˁrak/
English father’s elder brother

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 193
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*praːɡ/

Definitions

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  1. (archaic) eldest brother
  2. paternal uncle; father's elder brother
    [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    saam1 baak3, saam1 baak3 noeng4 [Jyutping]
    father's third elder brother; wife of a father's third elder brother
  3. form of address for senior males
  4. (historical) count (rank)
    See also: 五等爵位
  5. (Jilu Mandarin) mother
  6. (Jilu Mandarin) paternal aunt (wife of father's elder brother)
  7. (Wu) paternal aunt (father's sister)
  8. a surname

Usage notes

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In Old Chinese, sons of a same father are referred to in order as (, “first”), (zhòng, “second”), (shū, “third”) and (, “fourth”). The usage of and was later eliminated but and remained in use when referring to one's father's elder and younger brothers and male cousins. Moreover, 伯仲叔季 (bózhòngshūjì) was commonly used in personal names in the past, and this is still occasionally seen nowadays.

Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (はく) (haku, count)
  • Korean: 백(伯) (baek, count)
  • Vietnamese: (, count)

Others:

  • ? Proto-Turkic: *bēg (see there for further descendants)
  • Manchu: ᠪᡝ (be)
  • Thai: แปะ (bpɛ̀), แป๊ะ (bpɛ́, old Chinese man) (via Teochew)
  • Vietnamese: bác (uncle, aunt)

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (obsolete) Alternative form of (feudal chief)
  2. (obsolete) Alternative form of (to dominate; to lead)

Compounds

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Etymology 3

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“footpaths between fields going east to west; street; path; road”).
(This character is a variant form of ).

Etymology 4

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“troop of 100 soldiers, or a leader of such unit, centurion; etc.”).
(This character is the draft (1955) first-round simplified and variant form of ).
Notes:

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. count; earl
  2. eldest brother; eldest uncle
  3. chief official
  4. (abbreviation) Brazil

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term
はく
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC paek).

Pronunciation

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Affix

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(はく) (haku

  1. count; earl
  2. Short for ブラジル伯剌西爾 (Burajiru, Brazil (a country)).

References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC paek). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄇᆡᆨ〮 (póyk) (Yale: poyk) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (mat baek))
(eumhun 큰아버지 (keunabeoji baek))

  1. Hanja form? of (eldest brother).
    Synonym: ( (gon))
  2. Hanja form? of (father's elder brother).
Compounds
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Etymology 2

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Hanja

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(eumhun 두목 (dumok pae))
(eumhun 우두머리 (udumeori pae))

  1. Hanja form? of (feudal chief; chieftain; feudal rank count; earl (abolished in the late 14th century)).
Compounds
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See also
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Etymology 3

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Hanja

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(eumhun (gil maek))

  1. (Literary Chinese) Alternative form of ( (maek))

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: [1][2][3][4][5], bác[5]
: Nôm readings: [1][2][3], bác[2][3][6]

  1. chữ Hán form of (paternal uncle; father's older brother).

Compounds

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References

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