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See also:
U+4F2F, 伯
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F2F

[U+4F2E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F30]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 9, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人竹日 (OHA), four-corner 26200, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 96, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 466
  • Dae Jaweon: page 204, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 136, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4F2F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*pʰraːɡs, *pʰraːɡ
*pʰraːɡs, *mbraːd
*pʰaːɡ, *pʰraːɡ
*pʰaːɡ
*baːɡ
*baːɡ
*tʰaːɡ, *pʰraːɡ
*prɯɡ
*praːɡ
*praːɡ
*praːɡ
*praːɡ, *pʰraːɡ
*praːɡ
*praːɡ
*pʰraːɡ
*pʰraːɡ
*pʰraːɡ, *ɡeːwʔ
*mpʰraːɡ, *mbraːɡ
*braːɡ
*braːɡ
*braːɡ
*braːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*mbraːɡ
*praɡ, *preɡ
*ɦmreːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *praːɡ): semantic  (person) + phonetic  (OC *braːɡ).

EtymologyEdit

Unclear. Possibly an areal word (Schuessler, 2007). Compare Mru [script needed] (rak, eldest brother) and Kukish prak (eldest brother) (Löffler, 1966), as well as Lahu phâ (god; lord) < Thai พระ (prá) < Old Khmer bra or Angkorian Old Khmer braḥ, braḥh, brah (distinguished; divine; excellent; holy; sacred; superior; etc.) (see Khmer ព្រះ (prĕəh) for more).

Possibly related to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bʷaŋ ~ *pʷaŋ ((paternal) uncle; elder brother), in turn possibly related to (OC *hmraŋ, “elder brother”) (Benedict, 1972).

Alternatively, from (OC *braːɡ, “white”); compare (OC *paːl, *baːl, “white”), which underwent parallel semantic shift to "white-haired", though this is possibly folk etymology (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 2 is the exoactive/transitive of pronunciation 1 (ibid.).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • bǎi - vernacular (“husband’s elder brother”, e.g. 大伯子);
  • bāi - vernacular in some words (伯伯).
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • peh - vernacular;
    • pek/piak - literary, surname;
    • phek - literary (limited, e.g. 山伯);
    • pit - only used in 伯勞.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (113)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pˠæk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pᵚak̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pak̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /paɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /pɐk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /pɐk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pɐk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    bo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pæk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pˁrak/
    English father’s elder brother

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 193
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*praːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (archaic) eldest brother
    2. paternal uncle; father's elder brother
    3. form of address for senior males
    4. (historical) count (rank)
      五等爵位
    5. (Jilu Mandarin) mother
    6. (Jilu Mandarin) paternal aunt (wife of father's elder brother)
    7. (Wu) paternal aunt (father's sister)
    8. A surname​.

    Usage notesEdit

    In Old Chinese, sons of a same father are referred to in order as (, “first”), (zhòng, “second”), (shū, “third”) and (, “fourth”). The usage of and was later eliminated but and remained in use when referring to one's father's elder and younger brothers and male cousins. Moreover, 伯仲叔季 (bózhòngshūjì) was commonly used in personal names in the past, and this is still occasionally seen nowadays.

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (はく) (haku, count)
    • Korean: (, baek, “count”)
    • Vietnamese: (, count)

    Others:

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (, “feudal chief”).
    2. Alternative form of (, “to dominate; to lead”).

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“footpaths between fields going east to west; street; path; road”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Pronunciation 4Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“troop of 100 soldiers; hundred, ; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    JapaneseEdit

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC pˠæk̚). Attested in 훈몽자회/訓蒙字會 as Middle Korean ᄇᆡᆨ〮.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (mat baek))
    (eumhun 큰아버지 (keunabeoji baek))

    1. Hanja form? of (eldest (elder) brother).
    SynonymsEdit
    • (eldest (elder) brother): ( (gon))
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 두목 (dumok pae))
    (eumhun 우두머리 (udumeori pae))

    1. Hanja form? of (feudal chief; chieftain; feudal rank count; earl (abolished in the late 14th century)).
    CompoundsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (gil maek))

    1. (Literary Chinese) Alternative form of ( (maek))

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit