See also: and
U+5468, 周
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5468

[U+5467]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5469]

周 U+2F83F, 周
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F83F
呈
[U+2F83E]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 咢
[U+2F840]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Alternative forms edit

  • In certain typefaces and/or at small font sizes, the edges of the component touch the enclosing component, producing a resemblance to the radical .

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 30, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 月土口 (BGR), four-corner 77220, composition 𠮷(GTJV) or or 𰀁(HK))

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 181, character 36
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3441
  • Dae Jaweon: page 400, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 606, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+5468

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script
           

Etymology 1 edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𠄗
𠕛
𠣘

to encircle, to circle, to surround, everywhere, curve (in the road)
Unclear. Possibly connected with Tibetan གཅུ་བ (gcu ba) ~ ལྕུ་བ (lcu ba, screw), གཅུད་བ (gcud ba) ~ ལྕུབ་བ (lcub ba, turn, twist, plait, braid), or Thai ดิ้ว (dîu, club, stick; strips of rattan or bamboo bent in a circle to which ribs of a cage are fastened) or Khmer ជួត (cuət, to wind; to wrap around; to wear a turban) (Schuessler, 2007)
to help
Unclear. Maybe same word as (zhōu, “to surround”) as words for "help, aid" often derive from the notion "next to, or around, a person" (for analogies, (OC *ʔsaːls, “to assist < to be on one's left-side”) from (OC *ʔsaːlʔ, “left”) and (OC *ɢʷɯs, “to assist < to be on one's right-side”) from (OC *ɢʷɯʔ)) (Schuessler, 2007).
Alternatively, note Khmer ជួយ (cuəy, to help, assist; to support; to rescue, save) (ibid.). Even so, also note Thai ช่วย (chûai), which in turn is from Middle Chinese (MC dzrjoH)); if Khmer ជួយ (cuəy) and Thai ช่วย (chûai) were related, then Khmer ជួយ (cuəy) cannot be related to Old Chinese (OC *tjɯw).
dynasty's name
Attested in the Huayuanzhang East Oracle Bone Inscription HYZ 327.1 (transliterated and translated by Schwartz, 2019[1])
[Pre-Classical Chinese]  ―  Zhōu rù sì [Pinyin]  ―  Zhou contributes four
A 周方白 (Zhōufāng bó, “Elder of Zhou region”), likely King Wen of Zhou, was mentioned in Oracle Bone Inscriptions H11:82 and H11:84 (Lin, 1995)[2]
Hargett (2021)[3] states that (Shāng) and (Zhōu) derived from names of "places that the rulers and people of those eras regarded as their homeland or cultic centers"; the 周方 (Zhōufāng, “Zhou region”) was among "areas or regions along the frontier borders of Shang, traditionally regarded as enemy territory".

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂou⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂou⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂou²¹/
/t͡sou²¹/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂou²¹³/
Qingdao /tʃou²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂou²⁴/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂou²¹/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂɯ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂəu⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂou³¹/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂɤu⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡səu⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡səu⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡səu⁵⁵/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂəu⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂəɯ³¹/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂɯ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡səu¹¹/
Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂəu¹³/
Hohhot /t͡səu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡sɤ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡sɤ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡sei³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕɤu³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕiu³¹/
Tunxi /t͡ɕiu¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂəu³³/
Xiangtan /ʈ͡ʂəɯ³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sɨu⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /t͡su⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /tʃu²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɐu⁵³/
Nanning /t͡sɐu⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡sɐu⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /t͡siu⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /t͡sieu⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /t͡siu⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /t͡siu³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /t͡siu²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (23)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsyuw
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕiəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cuw/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕiu/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕi̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhōu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zau1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhōu zhōu
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyuw › ‹ tsyuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*tiw/ /*tiw/
English Zhōu (dynasty and place) cycle; all around

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 17531
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tjɯw/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. to circle; to encircle
  2. circle; circumference
      ―  zhōu  ―  surroundings
      ―  yuánzhōu  ―  circumference
  3. whole
      ―  zhōushēn  ―  the whole body
    眾所众所  ―  zhòngsuǒzhōuzhī  ―  as everyone knows
  4. to extend everywhere
  5. thorough; complete; comprehensive
      ―  zhōu  ―  thorough
      ―  zhōuxiáng  ―  comprehensive
  6. (obsolete) side; periphery
  7. (obsolete) to suit
  8. to help (e.g. financially); to relieve
    alt. forms: (zhōu)
      ―  zhōu  ―  to relieve
  9. (Cantonese, chiefly in the passive) to reprimand with authority; to catch
    上堂電話老師 [Cantonese, trad.]
    上堂电话老师 [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 soeng5 tong4 tau1 waan2 din6 waa6-2 bei2 lou5 si1 zau1 dou3-2. [Jyutping]
    He was playing on his phone during class and got caught by the teacher.
  10. Classifier for circuits.; circuit; revolution
      ―  rào chǎng liǎng zhōu  ―  to make two circuits around the arena
    地球環繞太陽需要365 [MSC, trad.]
    地球环绕太阳需要365 [MSC, simp.]
    Dìqiú huánrào tàiyáng yī zhōu xūyào yuē 365 tiān. [Pinyin]
    It takes around 365 days for Earth to complete one revolution around the Sun.
  11. (historical) name of various dynasties
    1. (~朝) Zhou Dynasty (1046—256 BCE)
    2. Northern Zhou (557—581), one of the Northern dynasties in China
    3. Wu Zhou (690–705), established by Wu Zetian
    4. Later Zhou (951–960), one of the Five Dynasties in China
  12. a surname
      ―  Zhōu Ēnlái  ―  Zhou Enlai / Chou En-Lai (the first Premier of the People's Republic of China)
Descendants edit
  • English: Zhou, Chou, Chow, Chau, Chew, Chiu
See also edit
Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
(~朝, ~代)
2070 – 1600 BCE
Shang
(~朝, ~代)
(~朝, ~代)
1600 – 1046 BCE
Zhou
(~朝, ~代)
1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
西周
Eastern Zhou
東周东周
Spring and Autumn period
春秋
Warring States period
戰國战国
Qin
(~朝, ~代)
221 – 206 BCE
Han
(~朝, ~代)
206 BCE – 220 C.E. Western Han
西漢西汉
Xin
(~朝)
Eastern Han
東漢东汉
Three Kingdoms
三國三国
220 – 280 C.E. Wei
Shu Han
蜀漢蜀汉
Wu
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
265 – 420 C.E. Western Jin
西晉西晋
Eastern Jin
東晉东晋
Southern and Northern dynasties
南北朝
420 – 589 C.E. Northern dynasties
北朝
Northern Wei
北魏
Western Wei
西魏
Eastern Wei
東魏东魏
Northern Zhou
北周
Northern Qi
北齊北齐
Southern dynasties
南朝
Liu Song
劉宋刘宋
Southern Qi
南齊南齐
Liang
(~朝, ~代)
Chen
(~朝, ~代)
Sui
(~朝, ~代)
581 – 618 C.E.
Tang
(~朝, ~代)
618 – 907 C.E.
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
五代十國五代十国
907 – 960 C.E.
Liao
(~朝, ~代)
907 – 1125 C.E.
Song
(~朝, ~代)
960 – 1279 C.E. Northern Song
北宋
Southern Song
南宋
Western Xia
西夏
1038 – 1227 C.E.
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
1115 – 1234 C.E.
Western Liao
西遼西辽
1124 – 1218 C.E.
Yuan
(~朝, ~代)
1271 – 1368 C.E.
Ming
(~朝, ~代)
1368 – 1644 C.E.
Qing
(~朝, ~代)
1636 – 1912 C.E.

Compounds edit

References edit

  1. ^ Schwartz, A. (2019) The Oracle Bone Inscriptions from Huayuanzhuang East: Translated with an Introduction and Commentary, Boston, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, →DOI, →ISBN
  2. ^ Lin, Sen-Shou. 1995. “Problems in the Studies of Zhou Oracle-Bone Scripts.” Retrospective Theses and Dissertations, 1919-2007. T, University of British Columbia. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0098998.
  3. ^ Hargett, James (2021) “Anchors of Stability: Place-Names in Early China”, in Mair, Victor, editor, Sino-Platonic Papers, number 312

Etymology 2 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“week; circumference; etc.”).
(This character is the simplified and variant traditional form of ).
Notes:

Usage notes edit

This variant form is the name of the second tetragram of the Taixuanjing (𝌇), as listed in the ancient text.

References edit

Japanese edit

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1]

周
&#x2F83F;
or
+&#xFE00;?
 
周󠄀
+&#xE0100;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
周󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji edit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form 周)

  1. circumference
  2. circuit
  3. lap

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology edit

Kanji in this term
しゅう
Grade: 4
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC tsyuw).

Pronunciation edit

Counter edit

(しゅう) (-shūしう (siu)?

  1. laps or circuits

Proper noun edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

(しゅう) (Shūしう (siu)?

  1. Zhou

Proper noun edit

(まこと) (Makoto

  1. a male given name

Proper noun edit

(あまね) (Amane

  1. a male given name
    西(にし)(あまね)
    Nishi Amane
    Nishi Amane (Meiji period philosopher)

References edit

  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015–2024
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun 두루 (duru ju))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds edit

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: chu[1][2], châu[3]
: Nôm readings: chu[1][4][5], châu[1][5]

  1. chữ Hán form of Chu (a surname.).
  2. chữ Hán form of Châu (a surname.).

Usage notes edit

Chu is the original Hán-Việt reading of this character and related ones according to Thiều Chửu. However, naming taboos for Nguyễn Phúc Chu () led to the reading Châu being used instead for this character, especially in the south of Vietnam, based on a tradition of u/âu sound swaps. Currently, both readings are in use. [6]

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Nguyễn et al. (2009).
  2. ^ Thiều Chửu (1942).
  3. ^ Taberd & Pigneau de Béhaine (1838).
  4. ^ Nguyễn (2014).
  5. 5.0 5.1 Trần (2004).
  6. ^ Thiếu Khanh (2019 July 7) “Những từ “kỵ húy” của người Nam bộ”, in Nhạc Xưa Thời Báo[2]