See also: sz, SZ, .sz, and sz.

HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-sz

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the second-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood, indefinite conjugation).
    tud (can)tudsz (you can)
  2. (obsolete frequentative verb-forming suffix) It was later reinterpreted as a present-tense marker, and eventually as a part of the stem.[1] Sometimes it is one of several suffixes, such as in -szik and in -szkodik​/​-aszkodik​/​-eszkedik (qq.v.).[1] Its frequentative sense is still perceptible in verbs suffixed with -ászik​/​-észik.[1]
    • Individual verbs: metsz (to cut, incise), uszít (to instigate), vonszol (to drag/lug), edz (et + sz) (to train/harden) etc.
    • sz-inserting v-stem verbs: tesz (to do; to put), lesz (to become; will be), vesz (to take/get), visz (to take/carry), hisz (to believe), eszik (to eat), iszik (to drink), alszik (to sleep), fekszik (to lie/recline), nyugszik (to rest/repose)
  3. (nominal-forming suffix) See -asz/-esz.

Usage notesEdit

  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -sz added to verbs not in the categories listed below
    vár (to wait)vársz (you wait, you are waiting)
    -asz added to back-vowel verbs ending in two consonants or -ít
    hall (to hear)hallasz (you hear, you are hearing)
    tanít (to teach)tanítasz (you teach, you are teaching)
    -esz added to front-vowel verbs ending in two consonants or -ít
    dönt (to decide)döntesz (you decide, you are deciding)
    segít (to help)segítesz (you help, you are helping)
    -ol added to back-vowel verbs ending in s, sz, z, dz
    olvas (to read)olvasol (you read, you are reading)
    -el added to unrounded front-vowel verbs ending in s, sz, z, dz
    vesz (to buy)veszel (you buy, you are buying)
    -öl added to rounded front-vowel verbs ending in s, sz, z, dz
    főz (to cook)főzöl (you cook, you are cooking)

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 -sz in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)