See also:
U+51AC, 冬
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51AC

[U+51AB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51AD]

冬 U+2F81A, 冬
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F81A
仌
[U+2F819]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 况
[U+2F81B]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 15, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹水卜 (HEY), four-corner 27303, composition (GTJV) or (K))

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 131, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1610
  • Dae Jaweon: page 294, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 867, character 19
  • Unihan data for U+51AC

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *tuːŋ): phonetic (, end) + semantic (day) or (ice).

Bronze script and Chu slip script
Composed of the early form of (“end”, as well phonetic), here represented by Shuowen ancient script  , + (day). In bronze script, ( ) was inside  . In Chu slip script, ( ) was below   ( ).
Seal script, Qin clerical script and after
Composed of   (“end”, as well phonetic) + (ice).

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Wang (1982) and Sagart (2023b) relate it to (OC *tjuŋ, “to end”). Sagart (ibid.) also proposes its cognacy to Chepang tyuŋh (at end, be weak, exhausted), dyumʔ (at ease after completing work), dyum (terminate, reach end; to be at end), Jingpho chatum (end, finish), Limbu tum-ma (ripe, mature), & Proto-Ao *a-thəm "end, finish".

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • tang - colloquial;
  • tong - literary.
Note:
  • dang1 - colloquial;
  • dong1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /tuŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /tuŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /tuŋ²¹/
    Jinan /tuŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /təŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /tuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /tuŋ²¹/
    Xining /tuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /tuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /tũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /tuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /toŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /toŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /toŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /toŋ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /toŋ³¹/
    Hefei /təŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /tuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /tuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /tũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /toŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /toŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /toŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /toŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /tʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /tan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /toŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /tən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /tuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /tuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /tuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /toŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /tuŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /tuŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /taŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tøyŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /toŋ³³/
    /taŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdoŋ²³/
    /ʔdaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (5)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter towng
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tuoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tuoŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /toŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /tawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /toŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /tuoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tuoŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dōng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    dung1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    dōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ towng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˁuŋ/
    English winter

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2419
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tuːŋ/

    Definitions edit

    1. winter
    2. (Cantonese) winter solstice
      [Cantonese]  ―  zou6 dung1 [Jyutping]  ―  to celebrate the winter solstice with a dinner
      大過年大过年 [Cantonese]  ―  dung1 daai6 gwo3 nin4 [Jyutping]  ―  the winter solstice is more important than Chinese New Year
    3. (Min Nan) year
    4. (~日) (telegraphy) the second day of a month
    5. Alternative form of (dōng, bang; thud)
    6. a surname
    Synonyms edit
    See also edit
    Seasons in Mandarin · 四季 (sìjì, four seasons) (layout · text) · category
    (chūn, spring) (xià, summer) (qiū, fall; autumn) (dōng, winter)

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This character, , is the simplified form of ).
    Notes:

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Shinjitai
    Kyūjitai
    [1]

    冬
    &#x2F81A;
    or
    +&#xFE00;?
     
    冬󠄀
    +&#xE0100;?
    (Adobe-Japan1)
    冬󠄃
    +&#xE0103;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
    See here for details.

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form 冬)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ふゆ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    ⟨puyu⟩/ɸuju/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *puyu.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ふゆ) (fuyu

    1. winter (season)
      Synonyms: 冬季 (tōki), 冬期 (tōki)
      (ふゆ)(きょう)(ふう)
      Fuyu no Kyōfū
      The Winds of Winter
    Derived terms edit

    Coordinate terms edit

    Seasons in Japanese · ()() (shiki, four seasons) (layout · text) · category
    (はる) (haru, spring)
    (しゅん)() (shunki, spring)
    (しゅん)() (shunki, spring period)
    (なつ) (natsu, summer)
    ()() (kaki, summer)
    ()() (kaki, summer period)
    (あき) (aki, fall; autumn)
    (しゅう)() (shūki, fall; autumn)
    (しゅう)() (shūki, fall period)
    (ふゆ) (fuyu, winter)
    (とう)() (tōki, winter)
    (とう)() (tōki, winter period)

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    とう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC towng).

    Affix edit

    (とう) (

    1. winter
    Derived terms edit

    See also edit

    References edit

    1. ^ 1914, 漢和大辭書 (Kanwa Dai Jisho, “The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 264 (paper), page 182 (digital), Tōkyō: 興文社 (Kōbunsha)
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC towng). Recorded as Middle Korean 도ᇰ (twong) (Yale: twong) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 겨울 (gyeoul dong))

    1. Hanja form? of (winter).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term
    ふゆ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Compare Japanese (fuyu, winter).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ふゆ) (fuyu

    1. winter

    References edit

    • ふゆ【冬】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: đông[1]

    1. chữ Hán form of đông (winter).

    Derived terms edit

    References edit