See also:
U+51AC, 冬
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51AC

[U+51AB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51AD]
冬 U+2F81A, 冬
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F81A
仌
[U+2F819]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 况
[U+2F81B]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 15, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹水卜 (HEY), four-corner 27303, composition (GTJV) or ⿱ (K))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 131, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1610
  • Dae Jaweon: page 294, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 867, character 19
  • Unihan data for U+51AC

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             

Ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tuːŋ): phonetic (end) + semantic (ice).

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.

Wang (1982) relates it to (OC *tjuŋ, “to end”).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • tang - colloquial;
  • tong - literary.
Note:
  • dang1 - colloquial;
  • dong1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /tuŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /tuŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /tuŋ²¹/
    Jinan /tuŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /təŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /tuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /tuŋ²¹/
    Xining /tuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /tuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /tũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /tuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /toŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /toŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /toŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /toŋ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /toŋ³¹/
    Hefei /təŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /tuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /tuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /tũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /toŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /toŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /toŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /toŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /tʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /tan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /toŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /tən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /tuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /tuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /tuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /toŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /tuŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /tuŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /taŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tøyŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /toŋ³³/
    /taŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdoŋ²³/
    /ʔdaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (5)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tuoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tuoŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /toŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /tawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /toŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /tuoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tuoŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    dōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ towng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˁuŋ/
    English winter

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2419
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tuːŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. winter
    2. (Cantonese) winter solstice
      [Cantonese]  ―  zou6 dung1 [Jyutping]  ―  to celebrate the winter solstice with a dinner
      大過年 / 大过年 [Cantonese]  ―  dung1 daai6 gwo3 nin4 [Jyutping]  ―  the winter solstice is more important than Chinese New Year
    3. (Min Nan) year
    4. (telegraphy) the second day of a month
    5. Alternative form of (dōng, “bang; thud”).
    6. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit
    See alsoEdit
    Seasons in Chinese · 四季 (sìjì, “four seasons”) (layout · text)
    (chūn, “spring”) (xià, “summer”) (qiū, “fall; autumn”) (dōng, “winter”)

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“ratatat; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the simplified form of , which is in turn a variant form of .)
    Notes:

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    ふゆ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    NounEdit

    (ふゆ) (fuyu

    1. winter (season)
      (ふゆ)(きょう)(ふう)
      Fuyu no Kyōfū
      The Winds of Winter

    SynonymsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    Seasons in Japanese · ()() (shiki, four seasons) (layout · text)
    (はる) (haru, spring),
    春季(しゅんき) (shunki, spring).
    春期(しゅんき) (shunki, spring period)
    (なつ) (natsu, summer),
    夏季(かき) (kaki, summer),
    夏期(かき) (kaki, summer period)
    (あき) (aki, fall; autumn),
    秋季(しゅうき) (shūki, fall; autumn),
    秋期(しゅうき) (shūki, fall period)
    (ふゆ) (fuyu, winter),
    冬季(とうき) (tōki, winter),
    冬期(とうき) (tōki, winter period)

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC tuoŋ). Recorded as Middle Korean 도ᇰ (Yale: twong) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 겨울 (gyeoul dong))

    1. Hanja form? of (winter).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: đông[1]

    1. Hán tự form of đông (winter).

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit