U+90FD, 都
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-90FD

[U+90FC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+90FE]

U+FA26, 都
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA26

[U+FA25]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA27]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Alternative forms edit

Note that there are two Unicode z-variants, with code points U+90FD and U+FA26 (the latter is a compatibility variant and contains an extra dot below in ).

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 163, +8 in Chinese, 邑+9 in Japanese, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十日弓中 (JANL), four-corner 47627, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1274, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39497
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1773, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3776, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+90FD

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𨜞

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *taː): phonetic (OC *tjaːʔ) + semantic (town, city).

Etymology 1 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter tu
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tuo/
Pan
Wuyun
/tuo/
Shao
Rongfen
/to/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tɔ/
Li
Rong
/to/
Wang
Li
/tu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tuo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
dou1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tu ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁa/
English capital city

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 16968
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*taː/

Definitions edit

  1. metropolis; large city
      ―  shì  ―  metropolis; major city
  2. capital; capital city
      ―  chéng  ―  capital
  3. (literary) to make a place the capital city; to establish a capital
  4. (obsolete) graceful; elegant
  5. a surname. Du
Synonyms edit
  • (metropolis):

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (to)
  • Korean: 도(都) (do)
  • Vietnamese: đô ()

Etymology 2 edit

Colloquial form of (OC *tja, “all”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation edit


Note: dū - only used in certain fossilized expressions, e.g. 大都.
Note: du1 - "also" in some overseas and Hong Kong speakers.
Note: du2 - “also”.

Definitions edit

  1. all; both (used to indicate that the statement is true for every subject or object); or the entirety of something
    知道  ―  dōu zhīdào le.  ―  I know everything. [ambiguous; may also mean “Even I know”.]
    任何  ―  Tā bǐ rènhé rén dōu hǎo.  ―  He is better than anyone else.
    這裡認識 [MSC, trad.]
    这里认识 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhèlǐ de rén wǒ dōu rènshí. [Pinyin]
    I know everyone here.
    現在超市什麼 [MSC, trad.]
    现在超市什么 [MSC, simp.]
    Xiànzài zài chāoshì shénme dōu mǎi de dào. [Pinyin]
    These days everything can be bought from a supermarket.
    什麼電影 [MSC, trad.]
    什么电影 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shénme diànyǐng dōu bù kàn. [Pinyin]
    He doesn't watch any movies.
    羨慕哪裡睡得著 [MSC, trad.]
    羡慕哪里睡得着 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ zhēn xiànmù tā, zài nǎlǐ dōu néng shuìdezháo. [Pinyin]
    I really envy him; he can sleep wherever he is.
      ―  dōu  ―  generally
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    ceoi1 dou3 sing4 coeng4 dou1 hai6 [Jyutping]
    blown by the wind until it has covered the entire wall
  2. (emphasis on subject) even
    知道怎麼知道 [MSC, trad.]
    知道怎么知道 [MSC, simp.]
    dōu bù zhīdào, nǐ shì zěnme zhīdào de? [Pinyin]
    How come you know it when even I don't know?
  3. (emphasis on object) even, interchangeable with (yě)
    身上沒有 [MSC, trad.]
    身上没有 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ shēnshàng yī fēn qián dōu méiyǒu. [Pinyin]
    I don't even have a single cent.
    電話一個 [MSC, trad.]
    电话一个 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ gěi tā dǎ le sì ge diànhuà, tā yīge dōu méi jiē. [Pinyin]
    I called her four times, but she answered none of them.
    1. (emphasis) Used in the ……都…… structure; interchangeable with (yě); even
      畜生不如自己父母養活 [MSC, trad.]
      畜生不如自己父母养活 [MSC, simp.]
      lián chùsheng dōu bùrú, lián zìjǐ de fùmǔ dōu bù yǎnghuo. [Pinyin]
      He is no better than an animal, because he doesn't even support his own parents.
  4. already
      ―  Dōu sì diǎn le.  ―  It is already 4 o'clock.
    這麼这么  ―  Dōu zhème wǎn le ma?  ―  Is it that late already?
  5. (Cantonese) as well; also; too
    [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  ngo5 dou1 hou2 hou2. [Jyutping]  ―  I'm fine too.
Usage notes edit
  • When negating , the placement of (bù) is important.
不都: not all, not everyone.
都不: none, no one
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 3 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to pout; to pucker up; etc.”).
(This character, , is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

Japanese edit

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1]


&#xFA26;
or
+&#xFE00;?
 
都󠄀
+&#xE0100;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
都󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

Readings edit

Compounds edit


Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
みやこ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
(kyūjitai)

京都
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

⟨mi1yako1 → */mʲijakʷo//mijako/

From Old Japanese, a compound of (miya, imperial palace) +‎ (ko, place).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(みやこ) (miyako

  1. (archaic) the place of residence of the emperor
  2. (by extension) a capital city
  3. (by extension) a capital (most important city in the field specified)
  4. (shogi, colloquial) Short for 都詰め (miyakozume): moving the 王将 (ōshō)/玉将 (gyokushō, king) to the center of the board with other pieces close together
Derived terms edit
Proverbs edit
Descendants edit

Proper noun edit

(みやこ) (Miyako

  1. a placename
  2. a surname
  3. a female given name

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
kan’on
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From Middle Chinese (MC tu).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally “Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

() (to

  1. a capital city
  2. a city, metropolis
  3. Short for 東京都 (Tōkyō-to): the capital prefecture of Tokyo
Derived terms edit

Affix edit

() (to

  1. city, metropolis
  2. capital city
  3. elegant, graceful, refined
  4. gather, command

Counter edit

() (-to

  1. counter for metropolis prefectures

Usage notes edit

Since (とう)(きょう)() (Tōkyō-to) is the only prefecture with () (-to), the counter only appears as (いっ)() (itto). It combines with the other prefecture counters (けん) (-ken), (どう) (-dō) and () (-fu) to count prefectures of mixed types.

Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
goon
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From Middle Chinese (MC tu).

The 呉音 (goon, literally “Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Affix edit

() (tsu

  1. all, both, everyone, whole
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015–2024
  2. 2.0 2.1 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun 도읍 (do'eup do))

  1. Hanja form? of (capital city).
  2. Hanja form? of (all, the whole).
  3. Hanja form? of (elegant, refined).

Compounds edit

Okinawan edit

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Old Japanese edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Originally a compound of (mi1ya, palace) and an uncertain (ko1) referring to a place.

  • The ko is possibly (ko2, affix indicating location), according to most dictionaries. However, poems in the Man'yōshū attest overwhelming phonetic usage of ⟨ko1 instead of ⟨ko2.
  • The ko is likely (-ko1, diminutive suffix), as some Man'yōshū poems use the 宮子 reading.

Noun edit

(mi1yako1)

  1. the place of residence of the emperor, especially a temporary lodging in which the emperor stays during an imperial visit
  2. (by extension) a capital city

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Japanese: (miyako)

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: đô

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.