U+5E1D, 帝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5E1D

[U+5E1C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5E1E]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 50, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 卜月中月 (YBLB), four-corner 00227, composition ⿱⿳)

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 330, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8865
  • Dae Jaweon: page 636, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 738, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5E1D

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𢂇
𠫦

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Ancient script Small seal script
               

Pictogram (象形). Possible interpretations:

  • The sepal of a flower; original form of (OC *teːds, “stem; peduncle”).
  • Tied-up firewood; original form of (OC *deːɡs).
  • An altar; original form of (OC *deːɡs).
  • An asterism joining three stars of Ursa Major with three of Ursa Minor, together with Thuban and Kochab. Around 2000 BCE the three top-to-bottom lines would have crossed at the north celestial pole, where the god 帝 dwelt (Pankenier, 2004).

The character's first attested use is for “God of Heaven”; it was later used as a title for emperors. Shuowen erroneously interprets the character to be a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *teːɡs): semantic (up; above) + phonetic (OC *sʰeɡs).

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *teɣ (God); compare Tibetan ཐེ (the, celestial gods of the Bon religion), Jingpho [script needed] (mə³¹-tai³³, god of the sky), Proto-Bodo-Garo *mɯ-Dai⁴ (spirit; god) (Coblin, 1986; Schuessler, 2007; Sagart, 2011). Cognate with (OC *deːɡs, “a kind of sacrifice”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Alternatively, Sagart (1999) derives it from a root *tek (to be master over; to rule over), whence also (OC *ᵃtek, “to rule; to control”), (OC *ᵃtek, “son of principal wife”).

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter tejH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/teiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/teiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɛiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tɛjH/
Li
Rong
/teiH/
Wang
Li
/tieiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tieiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
dai3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tejH ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁek-s/
English God

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2313
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*teːɡs/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. God of Heaven
  2. emperor; sovereign
  3. Short for 帝國主義帝国主义 (dìguózhǔyì, “imperialism”).
    鬥爭斗争  ―  fǎn dòuzhēng  ―  anti-imperialism struggle

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1][2]

帝󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
 
帝󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Alternative forms edit

Kanji edit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. sovereign

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(みかど) (mikado

  1. mikado (emperor of Japan)
  2. emperor

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ 1914, 漢和大辭書 (Kanwa Dai Jisho, “The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 760 (paper), page 430 (digital), Tōkyō: 興文社 (Kōbunsha)
  2. ^ 1927, 新漢和辭典 (Shin Kanwa Jiten, “The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 487 (paper), page 256 (digital), Ōsaka: 松雲堂 (Shōundō)
  3. ^ According to Jinnō Shōtōki (神皇正統記) by Kitabatake Chikafusa (北畠親房), 1339, 女帝 is pronounced as によたい (nyotai).
  4. ^ Tadao Yamada, Takeshi Shibata, Kenji Sakai, Yasuo Kuramochi, Akio Yamada, Zendō Uwano, Masahiro Ijima, and Hiroyuki Sasahara, editors (2011) 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Seventh edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC tejH). Recorded as Middle Korean 뎨〯 (tyěy) (Yale: tyey) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum je))

  1. Hanja form? of (emperor).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: đế, đấy, đê, để, đí, đó

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.