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U+8C61, 象
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8C61

[U+8C60]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8C62]
See also: 𧰼

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

In simplified Chinese and Vietnamese, the middle component of 象 is written overlapped by a downward slash. In traditional Chinese, Korean and Japanese, the middle section is written 𫩏 followed by 𧰨.

Han characterEdit

(radical 152 +5, in Chinese 11 strokes, in Japanese 12 strokes, cangjie input 弓日心人 (NAPO), four-corner 27232, composition𧰨(GV) or ⿳𫩏𧰨(HTJK))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1195, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36372
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1658, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3611, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+8C61

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
(Written Standard Chinese?)
(Cantonese)
(Gan)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l'aːŋʔ, *ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ, *hljaŋs
*ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ, *laŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ

Pictogram (象形) - pictographic representation of an elephant. represents the trunk, 𫩏 represents the head, and 𧰨 represents the body.

Etymology 1Edit

This character is used to represent two semantic fields ‘elephant; tusk’ and ‘to outline; to depict; to delineate; to represent; to resemble; to map’. Both fields are found from the earliest layers of the edited literature onwards, whereas only the first meaning is amply attested in oracle bone inscriptions.

Traditionally, the two senses are treated as related, with the sense of ‘to depict; to resemble’ considered a derivative of the sense of ‘elephant’. The derivation from the ‘elephant’ meaning to the ‘likeness’ meaning is explained in Han Feizi [ca. 221 BCE]: “Men rarely see living elephants. As they come by the skeleton of a dead elephant, they imagine its living form according to its features. Therefore it comes to pass that whatever people use for imagining the real is called .”

Modern etymology studies on Old Chinese have challenged this opinion; see (xiàng) for more discussion on the etymology of the second sense.

As for the ‘elephant; tusk’ sense, this is a widely used area word in East and Southeast Asia. Literature opinions differ on the origin and immediate relationship of this Chinese word; some (e.g. Schuessler, 2007) believe the Chinese form is a loanword from a Southern language, since “it is hard to believe that people all over SE Asia and as far away as the Himalayan foothills would borrow a word for an indigenous animal from Northern China”. Others believe the direction of borrowing is reversed (i.e. Tai-Kadai borrowing from Chinese), and that Chinese should be compared with Tibetan གླང (glang), གླང་ཆེན (glang chen, elephant) arising from a common Proto-Sino-Tibetan *glaŋ (ox, bull; elephant), which may ultimately have an Austroasiatic origin. The second viewpoint is supported by the early attestation of this character and the archaeological findings of the historical ranges of elephants.

See below for a tentative borrowing history of the various forms of this general area word.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • chhiūⁿ/chhiǔⁿ/chhiōⁿ - vernacular;
  • siōng/siǒng/chhiāng - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (17)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/zɨɐŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ziɐŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ziɑŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/zɨaŋX/
Li
Rong
/ziaŋX/
Wang
Li
/zĭaŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/zi̯aŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiàng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ zjangX ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-[d]aŋʔ/
English elephant

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13664
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ljaŋʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

 
象 (1)
 
(Chinese Chess) 象 (3)

  1. elephant (Classifier: m)
  2. ivory; tusk
    • Synonyms: 象牙 (xiàngyá)
    •   ―  xiàngchuáng  ―  ivory-decorated bed
  3. (Chinese chess) elephant
    • Synonyms: (xiāng)
  4. symbol; emblem
  5. shape; figure
  6. appearance; phenomenon
    • /   ―  xiànxiàng  ―  phenomenon
    •   ―  jǐngxiàng  ―  scene
  7. (traditional Chinese medicine) complexion
    •   ―  bìngxiàng  ―  disease signs and symptoms
  8. image; picture; portrait
  9. sign; indication
  10. imagination
  11. law; legislation
  12. principle
  13. calendar
  14. to imitate; to follow the example of
  15. to trace; to outline; to depict
  16. to resemble
    • 形字  ―  xiàngxíngzì  ―  pictographic character
  17. like; similar to
  18. A surname​.
SynonymsEdit
Dialectal synonyms of 大象 (“elephant”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Taxonomic name
Mandarin Beijing 大象
Taiwan 大象
Luoyang
Jiedian
Xi'an
Ürümqi
Wuhan
Chengdu
Guiyang
Cantonese Guangzhou 大笨象
Hong Kong 大笨象
Dongguan 大笨象
Taishan 大笨象
Nanning 大笨象
Wuzhou 大笨象
Hepu 大象
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 象仔大象
Liudui (S. Sixian) 象仔大象
Hsinchu (Hailu) 大象
Dongshi (Dabu) 大象
Zhuolan (Raoping) 大象
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 大象
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Penang
Philippines (Manila)
Pingnan
Haikou
Pinghua Nanning 大象
Guilin
Wu Shanghai 象鼻頭
Suzhou
Hangzhou
Chongming
Danyang
Xiang Quanzhou 大象

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Proto-Sino-Tibetan *glaŋ (ox, bull; elephant) (?)

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is the former (1964-1986) first-round simplified form of .)
Notes:

Usage notesEdit

  • was the official simplified form of only until 1986.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
(, kisa): an Asian elephant.
Kanji in this term
ぞう
Grade: 4
on’yomi

/zau//zɔː//zoː/

From Middle Chinese (zjangX, elephant; image, resemblance). Compare modern Cantonese reading zoeng6.

The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(counter , hiragana ぞう, katakana ゾウ, rōmaji , historical hiragana ざう)

  1. elephant
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
しょう
Grade: 4
on’yomi

/sjau//sjɔː//ɕɔː//ɕoː/

From Middle Chinese (zjangX, elephant; image, resemblance). Compare modern Min Nan reading siōng or Mandarin xiàng.

The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana しょう, rōmaji shō, historical hiragana しやう)

  1. likeness, appearance
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
きさ
Grade: 4
Irregular

From Old Japanese. Cognate with (kisa, wood grain), from the way that ivory also has a grain.[3]

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)

NounEdit

(hiragana きさ, rōmaji kisa)

  1. (obsolete) elephant
    • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 7, page 52:
      象 [...] 岐佐 [...] 獣名、似水牛、大耳、長鼻、眼細、牙長者也
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Toshikage)
      それより西を行ケば、虎狼ひと山さワぐ所有り。キサ出デてその山をこしつ。

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(sang) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer sang, Yale sang)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tượng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.