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See also: 𧰼
U+8C61, 象
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8C61

[U+8C60]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8C62]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional
Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

In simplified Chinese and Vietnamese, the middle component of 象 is written overlapped by a downward slash. In traditional Chinese, Korean and Japanese, the middle section is written 𫩏 followed by 𧰨.

Han characterEdit

(radical 152, +4 in Chinese, 豕+5 in Japanese, 11 strokes in Chinese, 12 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 弓日心人 (NAPO), four-corner 27232, composition𧰨(GV) or ⿳𫩏𧰨(HTJK))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1195, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36372
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1658, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3611, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+8C61

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
(Written Standard Chinese?)
(Cantonese)
(Gan)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l'aːŋʔ, *ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ, *hljaŋs
*ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ, *laŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ
*ljaŋʔ

Pictogram (象形) - pictographic representation of an elephant. represents the trunk, 𫩏 represents the head, and 𧰨 represents the body.

Etymology 1Edit

This character is used to represent two semantic fields ‘elephant; tusk’ and ‘to outline; to depict; to delineate; to represent; to resemble; to map’. Both fields are found from the earliest layers of the edited literature onwards, whereas only the first meaning is amply attested in oracle bone inscriptions.

Traditionally, the two senses are treated as related, with the sense of ‘to depict; to resemble’ considered a derivative of the sense of ‘elephant’. The derivation from the ‘elephant’ meaning to the ‘likeness’ meaning is explained in Han Feizi [ca. 221 BCE]: “Men rarely see living elephants. As they come by the skeleton of a dead elephant, they imagine its living form according to its features. Therefore it comes to pass that whatever people use for imagining the real is called .”

Modern etymology studies on Old Chinese have challenged this opinion.

As for the ‘elephant; tusk’ sense, this is a widely used area word in East and Southeast Asia. Literature opinions differ on the origin and immediate relationship of this Chinese word; some (e.g. Schuessler, 2007) believe the Chinese form is a loanword from a Southern language, since “it is hard to believe that people all over SE Asia and as far away as the Himalayan foothills would borrow a word for an indigenous animal from Northern China”. Others believe the direction of borrowing is reversed (i.e. Tai-Kadai borrowing from Chinese), and that Chinese should be compared with Tibetan གླང (glang), གླང་ཆེན (glang chen, elephant) arising from a common Proto-Sino-Tibetan *glaŋ (ox, bull; elephant), which may ultimately have an Austroasiatic origin. The second viewpoint is supported by the early attestation of this character and the archaeological findings of the historical ranges of elephants.

See below for a tentative borrowing history of the various forms of this general area word.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • chhiūⁿ/chhiǔⁿ/chhiōⁿ - vernacular;
  • siōng/siǒng/chhiāng - literary.
Note:
  • ciên6 - Chaozhou (“elephant”);
  • cion6 - Shantou (“elephant”);
  • siang6 - other senses.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (17)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /zɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ziɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ziɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /zɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ziaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /zĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /zi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xiàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ zjangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-[d]aŋʔ/
    English elephant

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13664
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ljaŋʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

     
    象 (1)
     
    (Chinese Chess) 象 (3)

    1. elephant (Classifier: m)
    2. ivory; tusk
      • Synonyms: 象牙 (xiàngyá)
      •   ―  xiàngchuáng  ―  ivory-decorated bed
    3. (Chinese chess) elephant (on the black side)
      • Synonyms: (xiāng)
    4. symbol; emblem
    5. shape; figure
    6. appearance; phenomenon
      • /   ―  xiànxiàng  ―  phenomenon
      •   ―  jǐngxiàng  ―  scene
    7. (traditional Chinese medicine) complexion
      •   ―  bìngxiàng  ―  disease signs and symptoms
    8. image; picture; portrait
    9. sign; indication
    10. imagination
    11. law; legislation
    12. principle
    13. calendar
    14. to imitate; to follow the example of
    15. to trace; to outline; to depict
    16. to resemble
      • 形字  ―  xiàngxíngzì  ―  pictographic character
    17. like; similar to
    18. A surname​.
    19. (historical) an alternate name used for the Nanman tribes during the Ming Dynasty
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of 大象 (“elephant”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Taxonomic name
    Mandarin Beijing 大象
    Taiwan 大象
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Cantonese Guangzhou 大笨象
    Hong Kong 大笨象
    Dongguan 大笨象
    Taishan 大笨象
    Nanning 大笨象
    Wuzhou 大笨象
    Hepu 大象
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 象仔大象
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 象仔大象
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 大象
    Dongshi (Dabu) 大象
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 大象
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 大象
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Penang
    Philippines (Manila)
    Pingnan
    Haikou
    Pinghua Nanning 大象
    Guilin
    Wu Shanghai 象鼻頭
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Xiang Quanzhou 大象
    Coordinate termsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Proto-Sino-Tibetan *glaŋ (ox, bull; elephant) (?)

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“picture; image; figure; statue; figure; sculpture; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the former (1964-1986) first-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Usage notesEdit

    • was the official simplified form of only until 1986.

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (, kisa): an Asian elephant.
    Kanji in this term
    ぞう
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    /zau//zɔː//zoː/

    From Middle Chinese (zjangX, elephant; image, resemblance). Compare modern Cantonese reading zoeng6.

    The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (counter , hiragana ぞう, katakana ゾウ, rōmaji , historical hiragana ざう)

    1. elephant
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しょう
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    /sjau//sjɔː//ɕɔː//ɕoː/

    From Middle Chinese (zjangX, elephant; image, resemblance). Compare modern Min Nan reading siōng or Mandarin xiàng.

    The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana しょう, rōmaji shō, historical hiragana しやう)

    1. likeness, appearance
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    きさ
    Grade: 4
    Irregular

    From Old Japanese. Cognate with (kisa, wood grain), from the way that ivory also has a grain.[3]

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Irregular reading)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana きさ, rōmaji kisa)

    1. (obsolete) elephant
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 7, page 52:
        象 [...] 岐佐 [...] 獣名、似水牛、大耳、長鼻、眼細、牙長者也
      • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Toshikage)
        それより西を行ケば、虎狼ひと山さワぐ所有り。キサ出デてその山をこしつ。

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (sang) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (tượng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.