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ChineseEdit

emperor; surname emperor
simp. and trad.
(皇帝)
 
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EtymologyEdit

First used by Qin Shi Huang (literally First Emperor of the Qin dynasty) as the self-proclaimed 始皇帝 (literally First Emperor), from (sovereign) +‎ (emperor). The two component words were originally the titles of the gods known as the 三皇五帝 (Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (33) (5)
Final () (102) (39)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () I IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦwɑŋ/ /teiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷɑŋ/ /teiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑŋ/ /tɛiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwaŋ/ /tɛjH/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑŋ/ /teiH/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑŋ/ /tieiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣwɑŋ/ /tieiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huáng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
huáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwang › ‹ tejH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷˁaŋ/ /*tˁek-s/
English sovereign God

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 12696 2313
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡʷaːŋ/ /*teːɡs/
Notes

NounEdit

皇帝

  1. emperor
    輔佐皇帝 / 辅佐皇帝  ―  fǔzuǒ huángdì  ―  to assist an emperor

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (皇帝):

Others:

See alsoEdit


JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 6
てい
Grade: S
kan’on
 皇帝 on Japanese Wikipedia

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese 皇帝. See also 三皇五帝 (Sankō Gotei) and 始皇帝 (Shikōtei).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

皇帝 (hiragana こうてい, rōmaji kōtei, historical hiragana くわうてい)

  1. an emperor
  2. an East Asian empress regnant
     (そく) (てん) (たい) (せい) (こう) (てい)
    Sokuten Taisei Kōtei
    Great Sage Empress Zetian
  3. (tarot) the Emperor

Usage notesEdit

  • An East Asian empress regnant has the same title as an emperor, not specifically "empress (regnant)" like in European languages. Similarly, a queen regnant has the same title as an emperor.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KhitanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Orthographic borrowing from Middle Chinese 皇帝 (MC ɦwɑŋ teiH).

NounEdit

皇帝

  1. emperor
    1081, 《多羅里本郎君墓誌碑》 [Memorial for Lord Dorlipun]:
    皇帝[⿱火日][⿰𤣩⿱⿻𠃊丨又]弃[⿻一⿵冂仌]囯[⿱火日][⿱干艹][⿻⿻二丨从]
    皇帝之時於丹國之宰相
    (please add an English translation of this quote)

ReferencesEdit

  • Cong, Yanshuang; Liu, Fengzhu; Chi, Jianxue (叢艷雙,劉鳳翥,池建學) (2005). 契丹大字《多羅里本郎君墓志銘》考釋 (A Textual Research and Explanation on the Inscription for Duoluoliben in Big Qidan Script). 《民族語文》 (Minority Languages of China), issue 4, page 54.

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

皇帝 (hwangje) (hangeul 황제)

  1. Hanja form? of 황제 (emperor).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

皇帝

  1. Hán tự form of hoàng đế (emperor).