U+6797, 林
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6797

[U+6796]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6798]
U+F9F4, 林
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9F4

[U+F9F3]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9F5]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木木 (DD), four-corner 44990, composition木)

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 516, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14551
  • Dae Jaweon: page 903, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1164, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+6797

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Duplication of (“tree”) to give the idea of multiple trees (compare ), thus a forest.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ram (jungle; forest; country; field) (STEDT). Cognate with (OC *srɯm, “forest”), Mizo ram (forest; country), Karbi ram (jungle).

Or perhaps an area word (Schuessler, 2007), shared with Khmer រាម (riəm, thick bushy jungle that grows along a stream), Old Khmer *rām (inundated forest along a watercourse), Old Khmer sarāma ~ sarāṃ (a tract of stunted vegetation), Mon ရာံ (rèm, copse; patch of woodland).

“Hayashi”
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (はやし) (Hayashi).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • nâ - vernacular;
  • lîm - literary (including surname).
Note:
  • nan5 - vernacular;
  • lim5 - literary (including surname).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /lin³⁵/
    Harbin /lin²⁴/
    Tianjin /lin⁴⁵/
    Jinan /liẽ⁴²/
    Qingdao /liə̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /lin⁴²/
    Xi'an /liẽ²⁴/
    Xining /liə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /liŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lĩn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /liŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nin²¹³/
    Chengdu /nin³¹/
    Guiyang /nin²¹/
    Kunming /lĩ¹/
    Nanjing /lin²⁴/
    Hefei /lin⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /liəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /liŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /lĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /liŋ²³/
    Suzhou /lin¹³/
    Hangzhou /lin²¹³/
    Wenzhou /leŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /liʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /lin⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /lin¹³/
    Xiangtan /nin¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /lin⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /lim¹¹/
    Taoyuan /lim¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /lɐm²¹/
    Nanning /lɐm²¹/
    Hong Kong /lɐm²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lim³⁵/
    /na³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /liŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /leiŋ³³/
    /laŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /lim⁵⁵/
    /nã⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /lim³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (139)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /liɪm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lim/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ljem/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lim/
    Li
    Rong
    /liəm/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭĕm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯əm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    lín
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    lín
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lim ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r]əm/
    English forest

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8165
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡ·rɯm/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. forest; grove; woods
    2. circle; community; group of similar people or things
    3. A surname​, commonly romanized as Lin, Lim, and Lam
    4. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) An orthographic borrowing of the Japanese surname and female given name [Term?], Hayashi

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (りん) (rin)
    • Korean: (, rim); (, im)
    • Vietnamese: lâm ()

    Others:

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    はやし
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. First mentioned in the Man'yōshū, completed in 759 C.E..[1]

    Derives from the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 生やす (hayasu, to grow).[1] The root verb is in the transitive form, suggesting that the original sense of hayashi may have indicated a deliberately planted or managed grove.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (はやし) (hayashi

    1. [from 759] a grove, woods, copse
    2. [from 759] (figuratively) a forest of something
    Derived termsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (はやし) (Hayashi

    1. a surname
    2. a female given name

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    りん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    /rimʉ//riɴ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC liɪm).

    AffixEdit

    (りん) (rin

    1. grove, forest, woods, copse
    2. gathering
    3. lined up
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (りん) (Rin

    1. a surname
    2. (rare) a female given name
    Usage notesEdit

    As a surname, this reading is more often used by people of Chinese ancestry, since it is similar to the Mandarin Chinese reading of Lín.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC liɪm). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: lim) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 수풀 (supul rim), South Korea 수풀 (supul im))

    1. Hanja form? of / (forest).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: lâm, Lâm

    1. forest
    2. gathering
    3. dense
    4. A surname​.

    ReferencesEdit