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U+5A18, 娘
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5A18

[U+5A17]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5A19]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 38, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 女戈日女 (VIAV), four-corner 43432, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 262, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6304
  • Dae Jaweon: page 529, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1054, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5A18

ChineseEdit

trad. /
simp.
: “mother”

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*raːl, *raːlʔ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raːŋs
*raːŋ, *raŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raŋ, *raŋs
*raːŋ, *raːŋs
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raːŋs
*raːŋ, *raŋs
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raːŋʔ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋs
*raːŋs
*naŋ
*raŋ
*raŋ
*raŋs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *naŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *raŋ).

EtymologyEdit

Not attested in pre-Tang texts. It may ultimately have been a fusion of 女郎 (MC ɳɨʌX lɑŋ, “lady”) (Coblin, 1994).

Alternatively, it may be a loan from Proto-Turkic *ana ~ *eńe (mother); compare Turkish ana and Uyghur ئانا(ana) (Vovin and McCraw, 2011).

PronunciationEdit


Note: nion3 - used in words meaning “maternal grandmother”, e.g. 娘娘, 姥娘.
Note:
  • nòng - vernacular;
  • niòng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • niû/niô͘/niâu, niâ - vernacular;
    • liông/liâng - literary.
    Note:
    • nio5/niê5 - vernacular;
    • niang5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /niɑŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /niaŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /niɑŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ȵiaŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /niaŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /niaŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /niaŋ²⁴/
    Xining /ȵiɔ̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /niɑŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ȵiɑ̃⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ȵiɑŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /niaŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /ȵiaŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /niaŋ²¹/
    Kunming /niã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /liaŋ²⁴/ 爹~
    /liaŋ³¹/ 姑姑
    Hefei /liɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /niɒ̃¹¹/ ~家
    /niɒ̃⁴⁵/ 姥姥
    Pingyao /ȵiɑŋ¹³/
    /ȵyə¹³/ ~~廟
    Hohhot /niɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵiã²³/
    Suzhou /ȵiã¹³/
    Hangzhou /ȵiɑŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
    Hui Shexian /nia⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵiau⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵian¹³/
    Xiangtan /ȵian¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiɔŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋioŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋioŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nœŋ²¹/
    Nanning /nɛŋ⁵⁵/
    /nœŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /nœŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liɔŋ³⁵/
    /niu³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nuoŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niɔŋ³³/
    /niɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /niõ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /niaŋ³¹/
    /nio³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (12)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɳɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɳiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /niɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɳɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /niaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /nĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ni̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    niáng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8045
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*naŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. woman, especially a young girl
        ―  niang  ―  girl
    2. (colloquial) mother; ma
    3. wife of another person
    4. elderly lady
    5. (religion) "The Lady", an epithet of the Fujianese sea goddess Mazu (媽祖妈祖).
    6. girly; effeminate; feminine
    7. () (phonology) a Middle Chinese initial and the 'Phags-pa script letter (ny-)

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
    Mandarin Beijing 媽媽, ,
    Taiwan 媽媽,
    Tianjin 媽媽,
    Harbin , 媽媽
    Shenyang 媽媽
    Jinan , 媽媽,
    Muping
    Luoyang , 媽兒
    Wanrong
    Wanrong (Ronghe)
    Xi'an
    Xining 阿媽, 媽媽, 姆媽
    Xuzhou 媽媽, , 大兒
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi 媽媽, , 阿娘 Hui, 阿娘子 used with minorities
    Wuhan 姆媽, 媽媽
    Chengdu 媽媽,
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou 阿媽,
    Kunming
    Yangzhou 媽媽, 姆媽
    Nanjing , 姆媽,
    Hefei , 媽爺
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿媽, 媽媽
    Hong Kong 媽咪, 阿媽, 媽媽
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 阿媽, 阿奶
    Taishan
    Dongguan 阿媽, 阿奶, 阿姐, 媽媽 childish, 媽咪 childish
    Yangjiang 阿媽, 阿娘
    Xinyi 阿媽
    Nanning 媽媽, 阿媽,
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur 阿媽, 媽咪
    Gan Nanchang 姆媽
    Lichuan 姆媽
    Pingxiang 姆媽
    Hakka Meixian 阿姆, 阿嫲
    Xingning 阿媽
    Qujiang 阿姆
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 阿姆, 阿嬸
    Changting 姆媽, 姆娓
    Pingyu
    Wuping 姆姆, 依呀
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 姆媽
    Yudu , 媽媽,
    Ruijin 姆媽
    Shicheng 姆媽
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿姆
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿姆, 姆媽
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿姆
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿姆
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 阿姆
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿依
    Hong Kong 阿媽
    Sabah 阿姆
    Senai 阿媽
    Singkawang 阿姆
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou 波哇, 波波呀, 呀波呀
    Min Bei Jian'ou 依呀, 媽媽
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依媽, 依奶
    Fuqing , 依奶, 媽媽, 依娜
    Matsu 依奶
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿母, 阿母仔, 母仔, 阿媽, 阿娘
    Quanzhou 阿母, 母仔, 阿娘
    Zhangzhou 阿母, 母仔, 咉奶, 嘔傴 euphemistic
    Taipei 阿母, 阿娘, 媽媽
    Kaohsiung 卡桑, 阿母仔
    Tainan 歐卡桑, 阿母, 俺娘仔, 娘嬭
    Taichung 媽媽, 阿母
    Hsinchu 媽媽, 阿娘, 阿母
    Lukang 阿母, 阿娘, 姨仔
    Sanxia 阿母, 阿娘, 姨仔
    Yilan 阿母, 阿娘
    Kinmen 俺娘仔
    Magong 阿母
    Penang 阿母, 阿媽, 媽媽,
    Singapore 阿母
    Chaozhou 阿媽, 阿娘, 阿姈
    Shantou 阿媽
    Haifeng , 媽媽
    Johor Bahru 阿媽, 媽媽
    Haikou 阿媽, 阿姐, 阿娘 dated, 阿嫂 dated
    Leizhou , dated
    Pinghua Nanning , 阿嫂, 阿嬸, 阿媼 dated
    Wu Shanghai 媽媽, 姆媽
    Suzhou 姆媽
    Hangzhou 姆媽, 媽媽
    Wenzhou 阿媽, 阿奶,
    Chongming 姆媽
    Danyang ,
    Jinhua 姆媽
    Ningbo 阿姆, 姆媽
    Xiang Changsha 媽媽, 姆媽, 娘老子
    Shuangfeng 姆媽
    Loudi 依爺, 姆媽, 娘老子
    Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (non-face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
    Mandarin Beijing 媽媽, ,
    Taiwan 媽媽,
    Tianjin 媽媽,
    Harbin , 媽媽
    Shenyang 媽媽
    Jinan , 媽媽,
    Muping
    Wanrong
    Wanrong (Ronghe)
    Xi'an
    Xining 阿媽, 媽媽, 姆媽
    Xuzhou 媽媽, , 大兒
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou , 老媽
    Ürümqi 老娘
    Wuhan 姆媽, 媽媽, 老娘, 黎山老 slang, 孟子見 dated slang
    Chengdu 媽媽,
    Guiyang , 老媽 humorous
    Liuzhou , 阿媽, 娘老, 老媽子
    Kunming 媽媽
    Yangzhou 媽媽, 姆媽, 老娘
    Nanjing , 姆媽,
    Hefei , 媽爺
    Nantong 娘嬭
    Cantonese Guangzhou 老母
    Hong Kong 老母, 老媽子, 阿媽, 媽咪
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 老母, 阿奶
    Taishan
    Dongguan 阿媽, 阿奶, 阿姐, 老母, 老乸 Changping, 媽媽 childish, 媽咪 childish
    Yunfu 老母
    Yangjiang 阿奶
    Xinyi 老母
    Nanning , 老乸
    Kuala Lumpur 老媽子
    Gan Nanchang 姆媽,
    Lichuan , 家母
    Pingxiang 姆媽, 娘老子
    Hakka Meixian 哀仔
    Xingning 哀哩, 阿媽
    Huidong (Daling) 阿姆,
    Qujiang 哀子
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 阿姆
    Changting 哀哩
    Pingyu 哀子
    Wuping 哀哩
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 姆媽
    Ruijin , 乳子
    Shicheng
    Shangyou 姐佬
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 哀仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 哀仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 哀仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 哀仔
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong 阿姆
    Senai 吾媽
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi ,
    Jin Taiyuan 媽媽,
    Xinzhou , 波波
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 娘嬭
    Fuqing 娘嬭
    Matsu 娘嬭
    Min Nan Xiamen 老母, 娘嬭, 阿娘
    Quanzhou 老母, 阿娘
    Zhangzhou 老母, 娘嬭
    Taipei 老母
    Kaohsiung 老母
    Tainan 老母
    Taichung 老母, 媽媽
    Hsinchu 老母
    Lukang 老母
    Sanxia 老母
    Yilan 老母
    Kinmen 老母, 俺母
    Magong 老母
    Penang 老母
    Singapore 老母
    Chaozhou 阿嬡
    Shantou ,
    Haifeng , 媽媽
    Johor Bahru 我媽
    Haikou
    Leizhou , , 尼母, 尼姨 dated
    Pinghua Nanning , 老娘, , , 阿媼 dated
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou , 姆媽
    Hangzhou 姆媽, 媽媽,
    Wenzhou 阿媽, 阿奶,
    Chongming
    Danyang ,
    Jinhua
    Ningbo 阿娘
    Xiang Changsha 媽媽, , 姆媽, 娘老子
    Shuangfeng 姆媽,
    Loudi 依爺, 姆媽, , 娘老子

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:

    • Khmer: នាង (niəng, young woman; girl)
    • Lao: ນາງ (nāng, woman; girl; lady; Mrs.)
    • Thai: นาง (naang, woman; wife; female lover)
    • Vietnamese: nàng (lady; young woman; she)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    むすめ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Compound of 生す (musu, to beget) +‎ (me, female).[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (counter , hiragana むすめ, rōmaji musume)

    1. (humble) a daughter
      • 2007 October 20, Izawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kotaro, “さいしゅう それぞれのみち [Final Chapter: Epilog]”, in ファイアーエムブレム 覇者の剣 [Fire Emblem: Sword of Champions], volume 5 (fiction), Jump Remix edition, Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 352:
         (おう) (こく)の『 (むすめ)』セシリア
        Ōkoku no ‘Musume’ Seshiria
        Cecilia, ‘Daughter’ of the Kingdom
    SynonymsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Alternative spelling. See (ko).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ko)

    1. Alternative spelling of (girl)
      • 1996 February 20 [Feb 15 1988], Adachi, Mitsuru, “テイク・オフ [Take Off]”, in SHORT PROGRAMショート・プログラム [SHORT PROGRAM], volume 1 (fiction), 25th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 107:
         () (ぶん) () (ぶん) (こう) (どう) (じょう) (けん)をつけちゃうんだよ、この ()—— (たと)えば、 (まい) (とし) (はつ) (ゆき) ()るまでモチは ()わないとか、 (れい) (きゅう) (しゃ) (とお)るまで (みち) (わた)らないとか、ネコがあくびするまでコタツを ()ないとか。
        Jibun de jibun no kōdō ni jōken o tsukechaun da yo, kono ko—— Tatoeba, maitoshi hatsuyuki ga furu made mochi wa kuwanai toka, reikyūsha ga tōru made michi o wataranai toka, neko ga akubisuru made kotatsu o denai toka.
        This girl, I’m telling you, she sets terms for every of her own actions— Like, not eating mochi until the first snowfall of each year, not crossing the street until the hearse passes by, or not leaving the kotatsu until her cat yawns.
      • 2000 January 20 [Nov 20 1982], Tezuka, Osamu, “第3話 スタ一誕生 [Chapter 3: Birth of a Star]”, in ブラック・ジャック [Black Jack], volume 11 (fiction), 8th edition, Tokyo: Hakusensha, →ISBN, page 62:
        その ()はもう ()んだ () (りょく) (てき) ()だった。
        Sono ko wa mō shinda. Miryokuteki na ko datta.
        That girl is already dead. She was very attractive.
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (nang/rang) (hangeul 낭/랑)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (nương, nàng, nường)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.