See also: and
U+5A18, 娘
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5A18

[U+5A17]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5A19]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 38, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 女戈日女 (VIAV), four-corner 43432, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 262, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6304
  • Dae Jaweon: page 529, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1054, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5A18

Chinese edit

trad. /*
simp.
: “mother”

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *naŋ) : semantic + phonetic (OC *raŋ).

Etymology 1 edit

Not attested in pre-Tang texts. It may ultimately have been a fusion of 女郎 (MC nrjoX lang, “lady”) (Coblin, 1994).

Alternatively, from (OC *naʔ, *nas, “woman”) with an attached suffix *-ŋ also found in (OC *ŋaːŋ, *ŋaŋʔ, “I for my part”) as against (OC *ŋaːlʔ, “I”) (Sagart, 1999: 134). However, evidence for this suffix is sparse; Sagart only adduces these two pairs of words.

As yet another suggestion, it may be a loan from Proto-Turkic *ana ~ *eńe (mother); compare Turkish ana and Uyghur ئانا (ana) (Vovin and McCraw, 2011).

Pronunciation edit


Note: nion3 - used in words meaning “maternal grandmother”, e.g. 娘娘, 姥娘.
Note:
  • nòng - vernacular;
  • niòng - literary.
Note:
  • niû/niô͘/niâu, niâ - vernacular;
  • liông/liâng - literary.
Note:
  • nion5 - vernacular (Shantou, Chaoyang, Jieyang, Raoping);
  • niên5 - vernacular (Chaozhou, Chenghai, Bangkok);
  • niang5 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /niɑŋ³⁵/
Harbin /niaŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /niɑŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ȵiaŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /niaŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /niaŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /niaŋ²⁴/
Xining /ȵiɔ̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /niɑŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ȵiɑ̃⁵³/
Ürümqi /ȵiɑŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /niaŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵiaŋ³¹/
Guiyang /niaŋ²¹/
Kunming /niã̠³¹/
Nanjing /liaŋ²⁴/ 爹~
/liaŋ³¹/ 姑姑
Hefei /liɑ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /niɒ̃¹¹/ ~家
/niɒ̃⁴⁵/ 姥姥
Pingyao /ȵiɑŋ¹³/
/ȵyə¹³/ ~~廟
Hohhot /niɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiã²³/
Suzhou /ȵiã¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵiɑŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /nia⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵiau⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵian¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵian¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɔŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋioŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋioŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nœŋ²¹/
Nanning /nɛŋ⁵⁵/
/nœŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /nœŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /liɔŋ³⁵/
/niu³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /nuoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /niɔŋ³³/
/niɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /niõ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /niaŋ³¹/
/nio³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (12)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter nrjang
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɳɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɳiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/niɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɳɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/niaŋ/
Wang
Li
/nĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ni̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
niáng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
noeng4
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8045
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*naŋ/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. woman, especially a young girl
      ―  niang  ―  girl
  2. (colloquial) mother; ma
  3. wife of another person
    [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    saam1 baak3, saam1 baak3 noeng4 [Jyutping]
    father's third elder brother; wife of a father's third elder brother
  4. elderly lady
  5. (religion) "The Lady" (an epithet of the Fujianese sea goddess Mazu (媽祖妈祖 (Māzǔ))
  6. (usually derogatory, of a man or a boy) girly; effeminate; feminine
      ―  niángpào  ―  sissy
  7. () (Chinese linguistics) the Middle Chinese initial of (MC nrjang)
Synonyms edit
  • (mum):

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():

Others:

  • Khmer: នាង (niəng, young woman; girl)
  • Lao: ນາງ (nāng, woman; girl; lady; Mrs.)
  • Thai: นาง (naang, woman; wife; female lover)
  • Vietnamese: nàng (lady; young woman; she)

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Definitions edit

  1. (Cantonese) old-fashioned
Compounds edit

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
むすめ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2][3] First cited to the Nihon Shoki of 720.[1]

Analyzed as a compound of 生す (musu, to beget) +‎ (me, female).[1][2][3]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(むすめ) (musume (counter )

  1. (humble) a daughter
    • 2007 October 20, Izawa, Hiroshi with Yamada, Kotaro, “(さい)(しゅう)():それぞれの(みち) (Saishūwa: Sorezore no Michi e, Final Chapter: Epilog)”, in ファイアーエムブレム:()(しゃ)(つるぎ) (Faiā Emuburemu: Hasha no Tsurugi, Fire Emblem: Sword of Champions), Jump Remix edition, volume 5 (fiction), Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 352:
      (おう)(こく)の『(むすめ)』セシリア
      Ōkoku no ‘Musume’ Seshiria
      Cecilia, ‘Daughter’ of the Kingdom
Synonyms edit
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

Alternative spelling. See (ko).

Noun edit

() (ko

  1. Alternative spelling of (girl)
    • 1996 February 20 [1988 February 15], Mitsuru Adachi, “テイク・オフ (Teiku Ofu, Take Off)”, in ショートプログラム ((まん)()) (Shōto Puroguramu (manga), Short Program (manga)), 25th edition, volume 1 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 107:
      ()(ぶん)()(ぶん)(こう)(どう)(じょう)(けん)をつけちゃうんだよ、この()—— (たと)えば、(まい)(とし)(はつ)(ゆき)()るまでモチは()わないとか、(れい)(きゅう)(しゃ)(とお)るまで(みち)(わた)らないとか、ネコがあくびするまでコタツを()ないとか。
      Jibun de jibun no kōdō ni jōken o tsukechaun da yo, kono ko—— Tatoeba, maitoshi hatsuyuki ga furu made mochi wa kuwanai toka, reikyūsha ga tōru made michi o wataranai toka, neko ga akubisuru made kotatsu o denai toka.
      This girl, I’m telling you, she sets terms for every of her own actions— Like, not eating mochi until the first snowfall of each year, not crossing the street until the hearse passes by, or not leaving the kotatsu until her cat yawns.
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. 2.0 2.1 ”, in デジタル大辞泉 [Digital Daijisen]‎[2] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, updated roughly every four months
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC nrjang). Recorded as Middle Korean 냐ᇰ (nyang) (Yale: nyang) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 아가씨 (agassi nang))
(eumhun 아가씨 (agassi rang))

  1. Hanja form? of / (woman).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Tày edit

Noun edit

(nàng)

  1. Nôm form of nàng.

References edit

  • Lục Văn Pảo; Hoàng Tuấn Nam (2003), Hoàng Triều Ân, editor, Từ điển chữ Nôm Tày [A Dictionary of (chữ) Nôm Tày]‎[4] (in Vietnamese), Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Khoa học Xã hội

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: nương, nàng, nường

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