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U+7AD9, 站
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7AD9

[U+7AD8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7ADA]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 117, +5, 10 strokes, cangjie input 卜廿卜口 (YTYR), four-corner 01160, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 870, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25742
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1300, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2707, character 28
  • Unihan data for U+7AD9

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms


𥩠
modern Hong Kong
 
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Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *rteːms): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *ʔljem, *tjems). A relatively late character – not found in Shuowen; found in Guangyun.

PronunciationEdit


Note: cham - "station".
Note:
  • cáng - "stand" (literary);
  • câng - "station";
  • colloquially "stand" is .
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chǎm/chām - literary;
    • chàn - vernacular (俗).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 站 (立)
    Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂan⁵¹/
    Harbin /ʈ͡ʂan⁵³/
    Tianjin /t͡san⁵³/
    Jinan /ʈ͡ʂã²¹/
    Qingdao /ʈ͡ʂã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂan³¹²/
    Xi'an /t͡sã⁴⁴/
    Xining /t͡sã²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂan¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂɛ̃n¹³/
    Ürümqi /t͡san²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡san³⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡san¹³/
    Guiyang /t͡san²¹³/
    Kunming /ʈ͡ʂã̠²¹²/
    Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂaŋ⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ʈ͡ʂæ̃⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sæ̃⁴⁵/
    Pingyao
    Hohhot /t͡sæ̃⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ze²³/
    Suzhou /ze̞³¹/
    Hangzhou /d͡zẽ̞¹³/
    Wenzhou /d͡za²²/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɛ²²/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /t͡san⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /t͡san⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡san⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡san⁵³/
    Taoyuan /tʃɑm⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sam²²/
    Nanning /t͡sam²²/
    Hong Kong /t͡sam²²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sam²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡saŋ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡saŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sam³⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /tam³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (9)
    Final () (151)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʈˠɛmH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈᵚæmH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȶɐmH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈəɨmH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȶɐmH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȶɐmH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȶămH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhàn
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16695
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    𪉜
    Old
    Chinese
    /*rteːms/

    Etymology 1Edit

    “to stand”
    A Northern Chinese word attested since the 9-10th centuries. Displaced earlier () in most modern northern Chinese varieties.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to stand
      起來 / 起来  ―  zhànqǐlái  ―  stand up
    2. to stop, to halt
    3. (figuratively) to take a firm stance; to uphold the stand
    SynonymsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Generally considered to be a Mongolian influence in the Yuan Dynasty – an abbreviation of 站赤 (“post stations during the Yuan Dynasty”), from Middle Mongolian ᠵᠠᠮᠴᠢ (ǰamči, post station) (> Mongolian замч (zamč, guide; cicerone)), a derivative of Middle Mongolian ᠵᠠᠮ (ǰam, way, path) (> Mongolian зам (zam)).

    Mongolian ǰam is undoubtedly cognate with Proto-Turkic *jam (post station) (> Turkish yam; ~ Russian ям (jam)) with the same meaning; see Yam (route). Starostin considers the Turkic form a descendant of Altaic *ńi̯àmi ("trace") and related to Proto-Mongolian *ǯim ("path, trace"; > Mongolian ᠵᠢᠮ (ǰim) / жим (žim)). Also compare Turkish yamçı (post rider), Russian ямщи́к (jamščík, drive, coachman).

    There is no scholarly consensus regarding the direction of borrowing. Generally it is believed that Turkic jam and Chinese zhàn are loanwords from Mongolian ǰam, however some (e.g. Tuymebayev in Казахско-монгольские лексические параллели) believe the directionality is reversed (i.e. Chinese "to stand > stand > station" → Middle Mongolian → Turkic → Russian). Whatever the etymology, what is apparent is that the word jam has been around for a long time and was used by Central Asians to designate a key postal relay station or official.

    In Chinese, this word has been competing with the native equivalent (, “post station”) since its introduction. Mongol-ruled Yuan Dynasty saw a profusion of usages of zhàn, which was deliberately suppressed in the succeeding Ming Dynasty in favour of . Both were used in the subsequent Qing Dynasty, with zhàn eventually predominating in the modern times, being used to render the sense of "station" in modern concepts, such as "train station". Other Sinosphere countries show preference variations too: Vietnamese uses (trạm), whereas Japanese and Korean still use for "station" (Japanese (えき, ​eki), Korean (, yeok)).

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. post station; relay station
    2. station; stand
      火車 / 火车  ―  huǒchēzhàn  ―  railway station
    3. Short for 網站网站 (wǎngzhàn, “website”).
      /   ―  zhàncháng  ―  sysop
      B  ―  B-zhàn  ―  Bilibili
      N  ―  N-zhàn  ―  Nico Nico Douga

    CompoundsEdit

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReadingsEdit

    • On (unclassified): たん (tan)
    • Kun: たつ (tatsu), たたずむ (tatazumu), うまつぎ (umatsugi)

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (cham) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (trạm, trậm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.