See also: é, -e, and




(feminine -ena, masculine plural -ens, feminine plural -enes)

  1. (Valencia) Alternative spelling of



From Middle French , from Old French , -et, -at, from Latin -ātus, from Proto-Italic *-ātos. Compare the borrowed doublet -at.



(feminine -ée, masculine plural -és, feminine plural -ées)

  1. (grammar) past participle root verb suffix of regular -er verbs, an inflected infinitive verb; -ed, -en, -n

Derived termsEdit



Etymology 1Edit

From a split of the obsolete lative suffix (below), with a semantic shift presumably evolving like “towards him/her” > “to him/her” > “of his/hers”.[1]


  1. (non-attributive possessive suffix) -'s, belonging to ……, that of ……. Used to form the non-attributive possessive[2] form of nouns. Compare the English pronouns mine, yours etc.). The plural form is -éi.
    iskola (school)iskoláé (belonging to the school, of the school, the school's)
    Ez a szék az iskoláé. (predicatively)This chair belongs to the school / is the school’s.
    ház (house)házé (that of the house)
    A fa árnyéka nagy, a házé még nagyobb. (as part of the subject)The shadow of the tree is big; that of the house is even bigger.
  2. (non-attributive possessive suffix, slightly colloquial) -'s, those of ……. It is also used informally for the plural of the non-attributive possessive (-éi being somewhat pedantic).
    Ezek a poharak a Pistáé.These glasses belong to Steve / are Steve’s.
    • 2021, Zsuzsa Mátraházi, Nádasdy Ádám: Még Arany János is követett el hibát műfordításban (interview with Ádám Nádasdy), HVG weekly:[1]
      Azt vetették a szememre, hogy a fordításaim értelmesek, szépek és jól követhetők, de kevésbé költőiek, mint az elődeimé, például Arany Jánosé, Babits Mihályé, Mészöly Dezsőé.
      I was rebuked for my translations being lucid, beautiful, and easy to follow, but less poetic than those of my predecessors, such as János Arany, Mihály Babits, and Dezső Mészöly (Q303494).

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Uralic *-j, which served as part of a diphthong (together with the vowel at the end of the noun stem) and became /.[3]


  1. (obsolete, case suffix) Used to form the lative, expressing the direction (“where to”) or the purpose (“what for”).
    Synonyms: (other obsolete suffixes that had a similar function) -k, -ni, -nyi
    • 1192–1195, Funeral Sermon and Prayer, translated by Alan Jenkins (In Quest of the Miracle Stag: The Poetry of Hungary, Vol. 1, →ISBN, p. 30)
      Menýi miloſtben terumteve eleve mív iſemucut adamut. eſ odutta vola neki paradiſumut haʒóá.
      Mennyi malasztban (= kegyelemben) teremté (= teremtette) kezdetben [az Úr] [a] mi ősünket, Ádámot, és adta (vala) neki [a] paradicsomot ház. (in present-day Hungarian)
      God in his divine grace made Adam our ancestor, and gave him Eden for his dwelling place.
Usage notesEdit
  • (case suffix) Harmonic variants:
    was added to back-vowel words.
    was added to front-vowel words.
Derived termsEdit
together with its front-vowel variant

Etymology 3Edit



  1. (dialectal, chiefly Transylvania) Alternative form of -e (whether, if) Tag for yes/no questions, always written with a hyphen before.
    Nem tudom, hogy sikerül.I don't know if it will be successful.

Etymology 4Edit


  1. (personal suffix, archaic) Used to form the third-person singular indicative past definite, for front-vowel verbs.
    A virágokat nézé.S/he looked at the flowers.
    Coordinate term: (for back-vowel-verbs)
    Synonym: (modern form) -te

See alsoEdit

Etymology 5Edit

See -e.

Alternative formsEdit

  • -i (dialectal, except in some set forms)


  1. combining form of -e (possessive suffix) before most case suffixes, except that of the essive-formal.
    feje (his/her/its head) + ‎-n → ‎fején (on his/her/its head)
Usage notesEdit

Examples for the -i variant in standard usage: jószerivel instead of jószerével, töviről hegyire instead of tövéről hegyére (uncommon), frissiben instead of frissében (uncommon), dögivel instead of dögével (uncommon). Examples for fairly common dialectal forms: bőviben instead of bővében, sebtiben instead of sebtében, felibe/fölibe instead of felébe/fölébe, köribe instead of körébe/köréje, and közibe instead of közébe/közéje.


  1. ^ in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)
  2. ^ Rounds, Carol. Hungarian: an Essential Grammar. London / New York: Routledge. 2001. →ISBN. Preview at Google Books The relevant page in the second edition (2009) →ISBN
  3. ^ in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Further readingEdit

  • (whether, if): , redirecting to -e in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (whether, if): , redirecting to -e in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (’A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2022)



  1. (disjunct prefix of position I)
    Postpositional prefix meaning “about”, “concerning”. It is often found in contraction with ná- (“around” or reversionary) as (b)éé-, where it converges in shape with (against).
    ► Navajo verbs with postpositional prefix -é


  1. (nominalizer) the one that, the one who

Usage notesEdit

Similar to the -er suffix in English, the suffix attached to a verb means "the one who does [verb]". It is a variant of .


Old FrenchEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • -e (manuscript form)
  • -et (12th century or earlier)


Inherited from Latin -ātus. First attested in [842], as -at (jurat in the Oaths of Strasbourg) > [circa 1050] -et in the Song of Roland; the form first appears in the 12th century.



  1. used to form past participles of regular -er verbs


  • Middle French:



From Vulgar Latin -āī, from Latin -āvī.


  1. a suffix indicating the first-person singular indicative preterite of a verb in -ar