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- third person singular masculine patient marker
- Swintha Danielsen, Tania Granadillo, Agreement in two Arawak languages, in The Typology of Semantic Alignment (edited by Mark Donohue, Søren Wichmann) (2008, →ISBN), page 398
-ni (appended to the (strong) vowel stem; the final -n of the genitive and illative singular and plural or the -t of the nominative plural is omitted)
- (possessive) suffix used with or without minun (the genitive of the personal pronoun minä), corresponds to the English possessive pronoun my:
- (possessive) appended to a genitive-requiring postposition that is after or without minun (the genitive of the personal pronoun minä), me:
- (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing, e.g., telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "I"; appended to the active present participle in genitive singular when the action is concurrent with the main clause:
- (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing, e.g., telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "I"; appended to the active past participle in genitive singular when the said/alleged (etc.) action antedates the main clause:
- (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing concurrent actions when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the inessive of the active second infinitive:
- (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing subsequent actions when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the partitive of the passive past participle singular:
- Tehtyäni läksyni (minä) kuulin laukauksen ulkoa.
- (After) having done / After doing my homework, I heard a shot from outside.
- (possessive) used in a final shortened sentence expressing "in order to do" when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the long first infinitive:
- (possessive) Used in some adverbs, when the clause has the subject "I".
- (possessive) Always appended to a noun in the comitative case when the clause has the subject "I".
- The possessive suffix -ni is compulsory in standard Finnish. In standard Finnish, when expressing ownership or before a postposition, the genitive form of the corresponding personal pronoun "minä" before the main word can be omitted. In colloquial Finnish, the suffix -ni is very rare and only the genitive form "minun" (or its colloquial or dialectal variants) is used before the main word.
- The shortened sentences — except for the participle structures — pertain mainly to formal/standard Finnish, not to informal/colloquial Finnish. It is also to be noticed that the shortened clauses are never separated from the main clauses with a comma.
- (infinitive suffix) Used to form the infinitive.
- Concessive sense: used to devalue the predicate of the sentence when repeated and followed by a clause that contrasts with or contradicts it. See also -nak/-nek.
- Elindulni elindul, de rögtön le is áll. ― It does start, but it turns off right away.
- (somewhat dated or literary, with the omission of lehet) one can…, it is possible to…
- Innen már látni a falut. ― One can already see the village from here.
- (infinitive suffix) Variants:
- -ni is added to most verbs
- -ani is added to back vowel verbs ending in -ít or in two consonants
- -eni is added to front vowel verbs ending in -ít or in two consonants
- -nni is added to verbs with variant stems
- This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text
- me (object suffix, first person singular)
- Forms agent nouns from verbs.
- 1st person plural emphatic suffix
- First-person singular subject.
- Epenthetic suffix inserted between consonant clusters.
- A suffix used to make a female form, similar to -ette or -ess in English
- feminine of
- Yūsuke Sumi (2018), “-ni”, in ニューエクスプレス ロマ（ジプシー）語 [New Express Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, →ISBN, page 130
- added to words that are stressed on the final syllable to move stress to the penultimate syllable
- Second person plural:
- With nouns, indicates location: in/inside, at, on
- (second-person plural) Used in conjunction with the direct imperative to form the plural. With native (Bantu)/nativized verbs in -a, vowel changes to -e:
- (second-person plural) Used in conjunction with the class 1 (personal) object affix -wa- to disambiguate the second-person plural from the third person plural; verbs in -a change this to -e before the affix:
- Niliwasomeeni (I read to you) vs. Niliwasomea (I read to them)
- non-past marker, applied to verbs of class 5 to indicate non-past tense
- What are you eating?
- Yini lokhu?
- What is this?
Unlike other pronouns, -ni always appears attached to another word. However, it does have a copulative form yini.
- Forms the plural of the imperative of verbs.