Karelian nuo, Estonian noo (southern dialect), Mordvinic nona, Mari nuno. Related to Northern Sami nuvt (“about”). Possible cognates in Samoyedic but relations are indistinguishable from relations to other n-pronouns.
nuo (stem noi-) (semantic plural of tuo)
- (demonstrative) those
- Case suffixes are regular and the stem is invariant. The comitative is quite infrequently used, but the abessive forms are practically never used. The instructive plural is used but rather as an adverb.
Declension of nuo
From Proto-Balto-Slavic *nō; compare Latvian nùo (“from”), Old Prussian no, na (“onto, against, over”), Proto-Slavic *n nkl a (“on, to”). In East Baltic the meaning somehow switched from lp"movement onto" to "movement away". Often connected with Ancient Greek ἀνά (aná, “up, along”) ἄνω (ánō, “upwards”) Avestan 𐬀𐬥𐬀 (ana), Old Persian 𐎠𐎴𐎠 (anā, “upwards, along”) < Proto-Indo-European *h₂en- (“up, on high”). A similar Balto-Slavic loss of initial *a can be seen in põ (“under, after”).
nuõ (with genitive)
- (with genitive) (away) from, off, out of (movement or position away from; separation from)
- (with genitive) from; since; due to (indicates the origin, start or cause)
- (with genitive) for, of; against (indicates purpose)
- (with genitive) from, on behalf of