See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
形-bw.png

Han characterEdit

(radical 59 +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 一廿竹竹竹 (MTHHH), four-corner 12422, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 363, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9969
  • Dae Jaweon: page 681, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 852, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5F62

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𢒈

EtymologyEdit

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
形-bigseal.svg 形-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + . In current form has been simplified to .

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕiŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ɕiŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕiŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ɕiŋ²⁴/
Xining /ɕiə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕin²¹³/
Chengdu /ɕin³¹/
Guiyang /ɕin²¹/
Kunming /ɕĩ³¹/
Nanjing /ɕin²⁴/
Hefei /ɕin⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦiŋ²³/
Suzhou /ɦin¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦin²¹³/
Wenzhou /jaŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɕiʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ɕin¹³/
Xiangtan /ɕin¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /hin¹¹/
Taoyuan /hin¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ²¹/
Nanning /jeŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /jiŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hiŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xeiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /heŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /heŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦeŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦeŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɛŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦɛjŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɣeŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɣieŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣieŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xíng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xíng
Middle
Chinese
‹ heng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˤeŋ/
English form, shape

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6862
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡeːŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. form; shape; appearance
    /   ―  xíngzhuàng  ―  form; appearance; shape
  2. image; appearance
  3. body; entity; contour
    /   ―  xíng  ―  physique
  4. style; vogue
  5. (grammar) Abbreviation of 形容詞形容词 (xíngróngcí, “adjective”).

SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. shape, form, style

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Probably related to 堅い / 硬い / 固い (​katai), hard.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana かた, romaji kata)

  1. a shape
  2. a form
  3. a pattern, die, or model from which copies are made
  4. on a coin, the side with writing on it: see antonym 縵面 (​name)
  5. collateral for borrowed money

Etymology 2Edit

Derived from kata above. The kata changes to gata as an instance of rendaku (連濁). Only found in compounds.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana がた, romaji -gata)

  1. (affixed to nouns): the shape or form of the affixed noun
    渦巻 (うずま) (がた)
    uzumakigata
    a whirlpool shape
     (たまご) (がた)
    tamagogata
    an egg shape
  2. (affixed to on'yomi nouns): a typical example of the affixed noun; the type of the affixed noun
    学者 (がくしゃ) (がた)
    gakushagata
    a scholar type
    英雄 (えいゆう) (がた)
    eiyūgata
    a hero type
Usage notesEdit

For a shape, the spelling is more commonly used. For a type, the spelling is more commonly used.

Etymology 3Edit

Derived from 形木 (​katagi), itself a compound of ‎(kata, shape) +‎ ‎(ki, tree, wood), meaning stencil. The ki changes to gi as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana かたぎ, romaji katagi)

  1. social customs, mores
  2. one's appearance; one's stance or body language
  3. one's character, disposition, nature

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana かたぎ, romaji -katagi)

  1. the character, disposition, or nature of the affixed noun

Etymology 4Edit

Unknown. Appears to be /kata/ + /chi/, but the derivation of the /chi/ element is unclear.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana かたち, romaji katachi)

  1. shape or form
  2. form, as opposed to substance
  3. shapeliness: see 形有り (​katachiari)

Etymology 5Edit

From Middle Chinese ‎(heng). Compare modern Mandarin ‎(xíng). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana けい, romaji -kei)

  1. (linguistics) grammatical tense
    過去 (かこ) (けい)
    kakokei
    the past tense
    将来 (しょうらい) (けい)
    shōraikei
    the future tense
  2. (Japanese grammar) a conjugation form of a verb
    連用 (れんよう) (けい)
    ren'yōkei
    the continuative form
    命令 (めいれい) (けい)
    meireikei
    the imperative or command form

Etymology 6Edit

From 成り (​nari), the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative form) of the verb 成る ‎(naru, to become).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

Usage notesEdit

The most common spelling for this use is なり, for all parts of speech.

NounEdit

‎(hiragana なり, romaji nari)

  1. one's clothing and appearance
  2. one's body shape or form
  3. one's circumstances or situation
  4. one's reputation
  5. following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連対形 (​rentaikei)) or plain perfective form of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
    人々 (ひとびと) ()なりになった
    hitobito no iu nari ni natta
    things turned out just as people were saying
  6. following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連対形 (​rentaikei)) of an adjective, indicates responding to the affixed adjective: compare English fitting
     (さむ)ければ (さむ)なり厚着 (あつぎ)をする
    samukereba samui nari no atsugi o suru
    if it's cold, then put on warm clothing / if it's cold, then put on warm clothes for cold weather
  7. following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連対形 (​rentaikei)) of a verb, indicates the moment of the action occurring: compare English as soon as
     (ことわ)りを ()なり () ()した
    kotowari o kiku nari nakidashita
    she burst into tears as soon as she heard the rejection
  8. following a noun, indicates a state fitting or becoming to the affixed noun
    子供 (こども)なり想像 (そうぞう)する
    kodomo nari ni sōzō suru
    imagine in a way fitting for a child / imagine like a child (implies that the subject is a child)
    自分 (じぶん)なり判断 (はんだん)
    jibun nari no handan
    my own kind of decision / deciding in my own way
  9. following a noun, indicates that shape or form: compare English like
     (ゆみ)なりになる
    yumi nari ni naru
    to become bow-shaped / to become like a bow

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana なり, romaji -nari)

  1. following the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative form) of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
    人々 (ひとびと) ()なりになった
    hitobito ga īnari ni natta
    things turned out just as people say

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(hyeong) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer hyŏng, Yale hyeng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hình, hềnh)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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