See also: and
U+5F62, 形
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F62

[U+5F61]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F63]
形 U+2F899, 形
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F899
𦇚
[U+2F898]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 彫
[U+2F89A]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 59, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 一廿竹竹竹 (MTHHH), four-corner 12422, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 363, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9969
  • Dae Jaweon: page 681, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 852, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5F62

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𢒈

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Ideogrammic compound (會意): + . In current form has been simplified to .

It may also be interpreted as a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡeːŋ): phonetic (OC *skeŋʔ) + semantic , if the original character was 𢒈.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕiŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ɕiŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕiŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ɕiŋ²⁴/
Xining /ɕiə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕin²¹³/
Chengdu /ɕin³¹/
Guiyang /ɕin²¹/
Kunming /ɕĩ³¹/
Nanjing /ɕin²⁴/
Hefei /ɕin⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦiŋ²³/
Suzhou /ɦin¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦin²¹³/
Wenzhou /jaŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɕiʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ɕin¹³/
Xiangtan /ɕin¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /hin¹¹/
Taoyuan /hin¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ²¹/
Nanning /jeŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /jiŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hiŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xeiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /heŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /heŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦeŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦeŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɛŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦɛjŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɣeŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɣieŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣieŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xíng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jing4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xíng
Middle
Chinese
‹ heng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˁeŋ/
English form, shape

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6862
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡeːŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. form; shape; appearance
    /   ―  xíngzhuàng  ―  form; appearance; shape
  2. image; appearance
  3. body; entity; contour
    /   ―  xíng  ―  physique
  4. style; vogue
  5. (grammar) Short for 形容詞形容词 (xíngróngcí, “adjective”).

SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. shape, form, style

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
かた
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[1]

Probably related to 堅い / 硬い / 固い (​katai), hard.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(かた) (kata

  1. [from 720] a shape
  2. [from 720] a form
  3. [from 1007] a pattern, die, or model from which copies are made
  4. [from roughly 1300s] collateral for borrowed money
  5. [from 1775] on a coin, the side with writing on it
    Antonym: 縵面 (name)

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
がた
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

Derived from kata above.[1] The kata changes to gata as an instance of rendaku (連濁). Found most commonly as a suffixing element in compounds.

The standalone noun sense was originally a shortening of 女形 (onnagata, literally woman form), a female role played by a male actor in kabuki theater. This noun sense is only spelled with the kanji.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(がた) or (がだ) (gata or gada

  1. [from 1820] (kabuki, theater) Short for 女形 (onnagata)., a female role played by a male actor in kabuki theater
    Synonyms: 女形 (onnagata), お山 (oyama)

SuffixEdit

(がた) (-gata

  1. (affixed to nouns): the shape or form of the affixed noun
    (うず)()(がた)
    uzumakigata
    a whirlpool shape
    (たまご)(がた)
    tamagogata
    an egg shape
  2. (affixed to on'yomi nouns): a typical example of the affixed noun; the type of the affixed noun
    (がく)(しゃ)(がた)
    gakushagata
    a scholar type
    (えい)(ゆう)(がた)
    eiyūgata
    a hero type
Usage notesEdit

For a shape, the spelling is more commonly used. For a type, the spelling is more commonly used.

Further readingEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
かたち
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[1]

Compound of (kata, shape, form) +‎ (-chi),[3] but the derivation of the chi element is unclear.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(かたち) (katachi

  1. [from 720] shape or form
  2. [from late 900s] shapeliness: see 形有り (katachiari)
  3. [from 1688] form, as opposed to substance

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
けい
Grade: 2
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦeŋ). Compare modern Mandarin (xíng). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(けい) (-kei

  1. (linguistics) grammatical tense
    ()()(けい)
    kakokei
    the past tense
    (しょう)(らい)(けい)
    shōraikei
    the future tense
  2. (Japanese grammar) a conjugation form of a verb
    (れん)(よう)(けい)
    ren'yōkei
    the continuative form
    (めい)(れい)(けい)
    meireikei
    the imperative or command form

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
なり
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings

なり

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[1]

From 成り (nari), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of the verb 成る (naru, to become).[1][2]

First attested as a suffix on a noun in the 曾我物語 (Soga Mongatari),[1] of uncertain dating but probably in the late 1300s. As a suffix on a verb stem, first attested from 1927.[1]

PronunciationEdit

Usage notesEdit

The most common spelling for this use is なり, for all parts of speech.

NounEdit

(なり) (nari

  1. [from 720] the shape or form of something
  2. [from late 900s] one's clothing and appearance
  3. [from mid 1600s] one's body shape or form
  4. [from 1477] one's circumstances or situation
  5. [from 1773] one's reputation
  6. [from 1763] following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連体形 (​rentaikei)) or plain perfective form of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
    (ひと)(びと)()なりになった
    hitobito no iu nari ni natta
    things turned out just as people were saying
  7. [from 1915] following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連体形 (​rentaikei)) of an adjective, indicates responding to the affixed adjective: compare English fitting
    (さむ)ければ(さむ)なり(あつ)()をする
    samukereba samui nari no atsugi o suru
    if it's cold, then put on warm clothing / if it's cold, then put on warm clothes for cold weather
  8. [from 1928] following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連体形 (​rentaikei)) of a verb, indicates the moment of the action occurring: compare English as soon as
    (ことわ)りを()なり()()した
    kotowari o kiku nari nakidashita
    she burst into tears as soon as she heard the rejection

SuffixEdit

(なり) (-nari

  1. following the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
    (ひと)(びと)()なりになった
    hitobito ga iinari ni natta
    things turned out just as people say
  2. [from 1951] following a noun, indicates a state fitting or becoming to the affixed noun
    ()(ども)なり(そう)(ぞう)する
    kodomo nari ni sōzō suru
    imagine in a way fitting for a child / imagine like a child (implies that the subject is a child)
    ()(ぶん)なり(はん)(だん)
    jibun nari no handan
    my own kind of decision / deciding in my own way
  3. [from late 1300s] following a noun, indicates that shape or form: compare English like
    (ゆみ)なりになる
    yumi nari ni naru
    to become bow-shaped / to become like a bow

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦeŋ).

Historical readings

PronunciationEdit

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 모양 (moyang hyeong))

  1. Hanja form? of (form; shape).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: hình, hềnh

  1. image
  2. a figure or a silhouette
  3. (Southern Vietnam) a photo; a picture
  4. (geometry) a shape
  5. Clipping of hình học (geometry).