See also: and
U+5F62, 形
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F62

[U+5F61]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F63]

形 U+2F899, 形
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F899
𦇚
[U+2F898]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 彫
[U+2F89A]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 59, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 一廿竹竹竹 (MTHHH), four-corner 12422, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 363, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9969
  • Dae Jaweon: page 681, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 852, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5F62

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𢒈

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意): + . In current form has been simplified to .

It may also be interpreted as a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡeːŋ): phonetic (OC *skeŋʔ) + semantic , if the original character was 𢒈.

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕiŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ɕiŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕiŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ɕiŋ²⁴/
Xining /ɕiə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕin²¹³/
Chengdu /ɕin³¹/
Guiyang /ɕin²¹/
Kunming /ɕĩ³¹/
Nanjing /ɕin²⁴/
Hefei /ɕin⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦiŋ²³/
Suzhou /ɦin¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦin²¹³/
Wenzhou /jaŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɕiʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ɕin¹³/
Xiangtan /ɕin¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /hin¹¹/
Taoyuan /hin¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ²¹/
Nanning /jeŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /jiŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hiŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xeiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /heŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /heŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter heng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦeŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦeŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɛŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦɛjŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɣeŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɣieŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣieŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xíng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jing4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xíng
Middle
Chinese
‹ heng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˁeŋ/
English form, shape

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6862
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡeːŋ/

Definitions edit

  1. form; shape; appearance
      ―  xíngzhuàng  ―  form; appearance; shape
  2. image; appearance
  3. body; entity; contour
      ―  xíng  ―  physique
  4. style; vogue
  5. (grammar) Short for 形容詞形容词 (xíngróngcí, “adjective”).
  6. to appear; to display
    於色于色  ―  xíngyúsè  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  7. to form; to become
    複雜复杂  ―  gèng xíng fùzá  ―  to become more complicated
  8. to compare
    見絀见绌  ―  xiàngxíngjiànchù  ―  pale by comparison

Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Vietnamese: hình ()

Japanese edit

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
形󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
 
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. shape, form, style

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
かた
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[1]

Probably related to 堅い / 硬い / 固い (​katai), hard.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(かた) (kata

  1. [from 720] a shape
  2. [from 720] a form
  3. [from 1007] a pattern, die, or model from which copies are made
  4. [from roughly 1300s] collateral for borrowed money
  5. [from 1775] on a coin, the side with writing on it
    Antonym: 縵面 (name)

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
がた
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

Derived from kata above.[1] The kata changes to gata as an instance of rendaku (連濁). Found most commonly as a suffixing element in compounds.

The standalone noun sense was originally a shortening of 女形 (onnagata, literally woman form), a female role played by a male actor in kabuki theater. This noun sense is only spelled with the kanji.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(がた) or (がだ) (gata or gada

  1. [from 1820] (kabuki, theater) Short for 女形 (onnagata)., a female role played by a male actor in kabuki theater
    Synonyms: 女形 (onnagata), お山 (oyama)

Suffix edit

(がた) (-gata

  1. (affixed to nouns): the shape or form of the affixed noun
    (うず)()(がた)
    uzumakigata
    a whirlpool shape
    (たまご)(がた)
    tamagogata
    an egg shape
  2. (affixed to on'yomi nouns): a typical example of the affixed noun; the type of the affixed noun
    (がく)(しゃ)(がた)
    gakushagata
    a scholar type
    (えい)(ゆう)(がた)
    eiyūgata
    a hero type
Usage notes edit

For a shape, the spelling is more commonly used. For a type, the spelling is more commonly used.

Further reading edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
かたち
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[1]

Compound of (kata, shape, form) +‎ (-chi),[3] but the derivation of the chi element is unclear.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(かたち) (katachi

  1. [from 720] shape or form
  2. [from late 900s] shapeliness: see 形有り (katachiari)
  3. [from 1688] form, as opposed to substance

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
けい
Grade: 2
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC heng). Compare modern Mandarin (xíng). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

(けい) (-kei

  1. (linguistics) grammatical tense
    ()()(けい)
    kakokei
    the past tense
    (しょう)(らい)(けい)
    shōraikei
    the future tense
  2. (Japanese grammar) a conjugation form of a verb
    (れん)(よう)(けい)
    ren'yōkei
    the continuative form
    (めい)(れい)(けい)
    meireikei
    the imperative or command form
Derived terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
なり
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[1]

From 成り (nari), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of the verb 成る (naru, to become).[1][2]

First attested as a suffix on a noun in the 曾我物語 (Soga Mongatari),[1] of uncertain dating but probably in the late 1300s. As a suffix on a verb stem, first attested from 1927.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Usage notes edit

The most common spelling for this use is なり, for all parts of speech.

Noun edit

(なり) (nari

  1. [from 720] the shape or form of something
  2. [from late 900s] one's clothing and appearance
  3. [from mid 1600s] one's body shape or form
  4. [from 1477] one's circumstances or situation
  5. [from 1773] one's reputation
  6. [from 1763] (following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連体形 (​rentaikei)) or plain perfective form of a verb) indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
    (ひと)(びと)()なりになった
    hitobito no iu nari ni natta
    things turned out just as people were saying
  7. [from 1915] (following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連体形 (​rentaikei)) of an adjective) indicates responding to the affixed adjective: compare English fitting
    (さむ)ければ(さむ)なり(あつ)()をする
    samukereba samui nari no atsugi o suru
    if it's cold, then put on warm clothing / if it's cold, then put on warm clothes for cold weather
  8. [from 1928] (following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連体形 (​rentaikei)) of a verb) indicates the moment of the action occurring: compare English as soon as
    Synonym: や否や (ya ina ya)
    (ことわ)りを()なり()()した
    kotowari o kiku nari nakidashita
    she burst into tears as soon as she heard the rejection
    (よう)()(えん)から(かえ)なり(はは)()きついてきました。
    Yōchien kara kaeru nari, haha ni dakitsuite kimashita.
    As soon as she returned from kindergarten, she clung to her mom.
  9. (after a verb in the past tense ) ... while ...
    Synonym: (mama)
    ()なり()ごうとしません[1]
    kita nari nugō to shimasen
    [it's so comfortable that] She doesn't want to take it off while wearing it

Suffix edit

(なり) (-nari

  1. following the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
    (ひと)(びと)()なりになった
    hitobito ga iinari ni natta
    things turned out just as people say
  2. [from 1951] following a noun, indicates a state fitting or becoming to the affixed noun
    ()(ども)なり(そう)(ぞう)する
    kodomo nari ni sōzō suru
    imagine in a way fitting for a child / imagine like a child (implies that the subject is a child)
    ()(ぶん)なり(はん)(だん)
    jibun nari no handan
    my own kind of decision / deciding in my own way
  3. [from late 1300s] following a noun, indicates that shape or form: compare English like
    (ゆみ)なりになる
    yumi nari ni naru
    to become bow-shaped / to become like a bow

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC heng).

Historical readings

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 모양 (moyang hyeong))

  1. Hanja form? of (form; shape).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: hình, hềnh

  1. image
  2. a figure or a silhouette
  3. (Southern Vietnam) a photo; a picture
  4. (geometry) a shape
  5. Clipping of hình học (geometry).