(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)
- shape, form, style
Probably related to 堅い / 硬い / 固い (katai), hard.
形 (hiragana かた, rōmaji kata)
- a shape
- a form
- a pattern, die, or model from which copies are made
- on a coin, the side with writing on it: see antonym 縵面 (name)
- collateral for borrowed money
Derived from kata above. The kata changes to gata as an instance of rendaku (連濁). Only found in compounds.
形 (hiragana がた, rōmaji -gata)
- (affixed to nouns): the shape or form of the affixed noun
- a whirlpool shape
- an egg shape
- (affixed to on'yomi nouns): a typical example of the affixed noun; the type of the affixed noun
- a scholar type
- a hero type
For a shape, the spelling 形 is more commonly used. For a type, the spelling 型 is more commonly used.
Derived from 形木 (katagi), itself a compound of 形 (kata, “shape”) + 木 (ki, “tree, wood”), meaning stencil. The ki changes to gi as an instance of rendaku (連濁).
形 (hiragana かたぎ, rōmaji katagi)
- social customs, mores
- one's appearance; one's stance or body language
- one's character, disposition, nature
形 (hiragana かたぎ, rōmaji -katagi)
- the character, disposition, or nature of the affixed noun
Unknown. Appears to be /kata/ + /chi/, but the derivation of the /chi/ element is unclear.
形 (hiragana かたち, rōmaji katachi)
- shape or form
- form, as opposed to substance
- shapeliness: see 形有り (katachiari)
From Middle Chinese 形 (heng). Compare modern Mandarin 形 (xíng). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.
形 (hiragana けい, rōmaji -kei)
- (linguistics) grammatical tense
- the past tense
- the future tense
- (Japanese grammar) a conjugation form of a verb
- the continuative form
- the imperative or command form
From 成り (nari), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, “continuative form”) of the verb 成る (naru, “to become”).
The most common spelling for this use is なり, for all parts of speech.
形 (hiragana なり, rōmaji nari)
- one's clothing and appearance
- one's body shape or form
- one's circumstances or situation
- one's reputation
- following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連対形 (rentaikei)) or plain perfective form of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
- hitobito no iu nari ni natta
- things turned out just as people were saying
- following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連対形 (rentaikei)) of an adjective, indicates responding to the affixed adjective: compare English fitting
- samukereba samui nari no atsugi o suru
- if it's cold, then put on warm clothing / if it's cold, then put on warm clothes for cold weather
- following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連対形 (rentaikei)) of a verb, indicates the moment of the action occurring: compare English as soon as
- kotowari o kiku nari nakidashita
- she burst into tears as soon as she heard the rejection
- following a noun, indicates a state fitting or becoming to the affixed noun
- kodomo nari ni sōzō suru
- imagine in a way fitting for a child / imagine like a child (implies that the subject is a child)
- jibun nari no handan
- my own kind of decision / deciding in my own way
- following a noun, indicates that shape or form: compare English like
- yumi nari ni naru
- to become bow-shaped / to become like a bow
形 (hiragana なり, rōmaji -nari)
- following the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, “continuative form”) of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
- hitobito ga īnari ni natta
- things turned out just as people say