See also:
U+4EC7, 仇
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EC7

[U+4EC6]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EC8]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 9, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 人大弓 (OKN), four-corner 24217, composition )

References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 91, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 355
  • Dae Jaweon: page 193, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 109, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4EC7

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms “resentment”

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡu) : semantic (person) + phonetic (OC *kuʔ) – spouse.

Pronunciation 1

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  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰou³⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰou²⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰou⁴⁵/
/t͡sʰou⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰou⁴²/
Qingdao /tʃʰou⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰou⁴²/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰou²⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɯ²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰəu⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰou⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɤu⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰəu²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰəu³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰəu²¹/ ~恨
/t͡ɕʰiəu²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰəu³¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰəɯ²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɯ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰəu¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡sʰəu¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰəu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zɤ²³/
Suzhou /zɤ¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zei²¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡ʑɤu³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰiu⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡ɕʰiu⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂəu¹³/
Xiangtan /ɖ͡ʐəɯ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɨu²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /su¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃu¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐu²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰɐu²¹/
Hong Kong /sɐu²¹/
/t͡sʰɐu²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /siu³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /sieu⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /t͡sʰiu²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /t͡sʰiu⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /siu³¹/
/sɔu³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (30)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter gjuw
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/guw/
Li
Rong
/ɡiu/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiú
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
kau4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qiú
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ](r)u/
English mate (*n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6944
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
𧚍
Old
Chinese
/*ɡu/

Definitions

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  1. hatred; enmity; resentment
  2. enemy; foe; adversary
  3. to make reprisals; to retaliate
  4. to proofread; to check against the original

Compounds

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Pronunciation 2

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (30)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter gjuw
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/guw/
Li
Rong
/ɡiu/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiú
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
kau4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qiú
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ](r)u/
English mate (*n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6944
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
𧚍
Old
Chinese
/*ɡu/

Definitions

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  1. companion; peer
  2. spouse; mate
  3. a surname

Compounds

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(Hyōgai kanji)

Readings

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
あだ
Hyōgai
kun'yomi

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(あだ) (ada

  1. foe, enemy

Etymology 2

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Noun

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(かたき) (kataki

  1. Alternative form of

References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja

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(eum (gu))

  1. enemy
  2. hate, hatred
  3. enmity

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: cừu

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.