See also:
U+4EC7, 仇
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EC7

[U+4EC6]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EC8]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 9, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 人大弓 (OKN), four-corner 24217, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 91, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 355
  • Dae Jaweon: page 193, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 109, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4EC7

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms “resentment”

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡu): semantic (person) + phonetic (OC *kuʔ) – spouse.

Pronunciation 1Edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰou³⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰou²⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰou⁴⁵/
/t͡sʰou⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰou⁴²/
Qingdao /tʃʰou⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰou⁴²/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰou²⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɯ²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰəu⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰou⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɤu⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰəu²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰəu³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰəu²¹/ ~恨
/t͡ɕʰiəu²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰəu³¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰəɯ²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɯ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰəu¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡sʰəu¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰəu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zɤ²³/
Suzhou /zɤ¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zei²¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡ʑɤu³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰiu⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡ɕʰiu⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂəu¹³/
Xiangtan /ɖ͡ʐəɯ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɨu²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /su¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃu¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐu²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰɐu²¹/
Hong Kong /sɐu²¹/
/t͡sʰɐu²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siu³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sieu⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰiu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰiu⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /siu³¹/
/sɔu³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (30)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/guw/
Li
Rong
/ɡiu/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiú
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
kau4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qiú
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ](r)u/
English mate (*n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6944
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
𧚍
Old
Chinese
/*ɡu/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. hatred; enmity; resentment
  2. enemy; foe; adversary
  3. to make reprisals; to retaliate
  4. to proofread; to check against the original

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (30)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/guw/
Li
Rong
/ɡiu/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiú
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
kau4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qiú
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ](r)u/
English mate (*n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6944
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
𧚍
Old
Chinese
/*ɡu/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. companion; peer
  2. spouse; mate
  3. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
あだ
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(あだ) (ada

  1. foe, enemy

Etymology 2Edit

NounEdit

(かたき) (kataki

  1. Alternative form of

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eum (gu))

  1. enemy
  2. hate, hatred
  3. enmity

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: cừu

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.