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See also: , , and 𫞟
U+70BA, 為
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-70BA

[U+70B9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+70BB]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 86, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 戈大弓火 (IKNF), four-corner 20227)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 669, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18981
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2198, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+70BA

ChineseEdit

trad. /
simp.
variant forms 𫞟

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋʷaːl
*kʷral
*kʷral, *ɢʷal
*kʷralʔ, *qʷral
*ŋʷrals
*qʰʷral
*qʰʷral
*ɢʷal, *ɢʷal, *ɢʷals
*ɢʷal, *ɢʷalʔ
*ɢʷalʔ
*ɢʷalʔ
*ɢʷalʔ
*ɢʷalʔ

Simplified from .

In the oracle bone script, it is an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (hand) +  (elephant) — a hand holding an elephant. The later became (“hand; claw”).

Shuowen Jiezi interprets the character as a representation of the female macaque.

EtymologyEdit

The two pronunciations below (“to make; to do; to be”, “for; to; because”) are cognate; the latter is the *–s derivative of the former. Words meaning “to make, to do” often have secondary meanings of “for, as” – compare .

Etymology not certain. Starostin compared this word with Tibetan བགྱིད (bgyid, to make, to manufacture), བགྱི་བ (bgyi ba, action, deed), ཡིན (yin, is, be) and Burmese ဝေ (we, to distribute, to share). Schuessler (2007) listed *ʔaajh (to give) (> Khmer ឲ្យ (ʾaoy, to give, to donate)) and Khmer ធ្វើ (thvəə, to do, to make), although the vowels do not match.

The graphic representation using a monkey or an elephant probably stems from a homophonic or near-homophonic etymon which was rarely attested; compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b/g-woj-n > Jingpho woi (monkey) and possibly (OC *ɢʷan, “ape”). STEDT considers this word to be a possible descendant of Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-gwi(j) (elephant). Outside Sino-Tibetan, compare Proto-Vietic *-vɔːj (elephant) > Vietnamese voi (elephant).

Pronunciation 1Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (35)
Final () (14)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠiuᴇ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷᵚiɛ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiuɛ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦjwiə̆/
Li
Rong
/ɣjue/
Wang
Li
/ɣǐwe/
Bernard
Karlgren
/wie̯/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wéi
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wéi
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjwe ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷ(r)aj/
English make, do, act as

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷal/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to do; to make
  2. (to turn, to transform) into; to
  3. to be (equivalent to, equal to)
  4. to take something as
  5. to act as; to serve as; to behave as
  6. as (in the capacity of)

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (35)
Final () (14)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠiuᴇH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷᵚiɛH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiuɛH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦjwiə̆H/
Li
Rong
/ɣjueH/
Wang
Li
/ɣǐweH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/wie̯H/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wèi
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjweH ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷ(r)aj-s/
English for, because

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷals/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. for; to
  2. because of
    生氣 / 生气  ―  wèi zhè shēngqì o.  ―  So that's what you're upset about?
  3. for the sake of
    五斗米折腰 / 五斗米折腰  ―  wèi wǔ dǒu mǐ zhéyāo  ―  don't bow down for the sake of five pecks (or decalitres) of rice

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. do, perform, carry out

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ため
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry at ため.
ため【為・為め】
[noun]advantage, benefit
[noun]after a particle (ga) or (no):
  1. cause, reason
  2. objective, sake
[noun]affecting, concerning, regarding
[proper noun]a surname
(This term, , is a kanji spelling of ため.)

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry at .
た【為】
[noun]Synonym of ため (tame)
(This term, , is a kanji spelling of .)

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Used as 借音 (shakuon) kana for ⟨su⟩.

VerbEdit

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana , rōmaji su)

  1. (archaic) to do
  2. (archaic) to cause, become
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on’yomi

/wi//i/

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠiuᴇ).

NounEdit

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana , rōmaji i, historical hiragana )

  1. the twelfth string on a koto (Japanese zither)
  2. a fingering method for playing the shakuhachi (Japanese flute)

AffixEdit

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana , rōmaji i, historical hiragana )

  1. do; perform; carry out
Derived termsEdit

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eum (wi))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(vi, vị)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.