See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
為-order.gif

Han characterEdit

(radical 86 +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 戈大弓火 (IKNF), four-corner 20227)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 669, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18981
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2198, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+70BA

ChineseEdit

trad. /
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script
為-oracle.svg 為-bronze.svg 為-bigseal.svg

Simplified from (). In the oracle bone script, it is an Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(hand) +  ‎(elephant) — a hand holding an animal (an elephant or a monkey). The later became (“hand; claw”). Shuowen Jiezi explained the character to be a representation of the female macaque.

EtymologyEdit

The two pronunciations below ("to make; to do; to be", "for; to; because") are cognate; the latter is the *-s derivative of the former. Words meaning "to make, to do" often have secondary meanings of "for, as" - compare .

Etymology not certain. Starostin compared this word with Tibetan བགྱིད་པ ‎(bgyid pa, to make, to manufacture), བགྱི་བ ‎(bgyi ba, action, deed), ཡིན ‎(yin, is, be) and Burmese ဝေ ‎(we, to distribute, to share). Schuessler listed *ʔaayh ‎(to give) (> Khmer ឲ្យ ‎(to give, to donate)) and Khmer ធ្វើ ‎(thveu, to do, to make), although the vowels do not match.

The graphic representation using monkey or elephant probably stems a homophonic or near-homophonic etymon which was rarely attested; compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b/g-woj-n > Jingpho woi ‎(monkey) and possibly (yuán, “ape”). Outside Sino-Tibetan, compare Proto-Vietic *-vɔːj ‎(elephant) > Vietnamese voi ‎(elephant).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (35)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦiuᴇ/ /wie̯/ /ɣiue/ /ɦʷiɛ/ /ɦwiə̆/ /ɣǐwe/ /ɣjuɛ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
wéi ‹ hjwe › /*ɢʷ(r)aj/ make, do, act as

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1 /*ɢʷal/ 俗爲字

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to do, to make
  2. (to turn, to transform) into, to
  3. to be (equivalent to, equal to)
  4. to take something as
  5. to act as; to serve as; to behave as
  6. as (in the capacity of)

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
wèi ‹ hjweH › /*ɢʷ(r)aj-s/ for, because

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1 /*ɢʷals/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. for; to
  2. because of
    生氣 [MSC, trad.]
    生气 [MSC, simp.]
    wèi zhè shēngqì ò. [Pinyin]
    So that's what you're upset about?

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReadingsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana ため, romaji tame)

  1. benefit
  2. sake; reason

Usage notesEdit

The kana writing is preferred over the kanji spelling.

VerbEdit

‎(irregular conjugation, hiragana , romaji su)

  1. to do

Derived termsEdit

CompoundsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(wi) (hangeul ) (wi; hangul: )

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(vi, vị)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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