See also:
U+8981, 要
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8981

[U+8980]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8982]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 146, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 一田女 (MWV), four-corner 10404, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1128, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34768
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1597, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2805, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8981

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Pictogram (象形): a woman () with two hands pointing to her midsection.

Original meaning was “waist” (now (OC *qew)). The hands gradually shifted upwards; the in the modern form evolved from the hands and the woman's head.

Pronunciation 1Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (34)
Final () (91)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔiᴇu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔiɛu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔjæu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔiaw/
Li
Rong
/ʔiɛu/
Wang
Li
/ĭɛu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ɛu/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yāo
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 14748
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qew/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to demand; to ask; to request
      ―  yāoqiú  ―  to request
  2. to force; to coerce
    /   ―  yāoxié  ―  to threaten, to blackmail
  3. to promise
    /   ―  yāoyuē  ―  to restrict, to agree to a contract/offer/bid
  4. to block; to intercept
    /   ―  yāo  ―  to intercept, to ambush
  5. Alternative form of (“to invite”).
  6. Alternative form of (“waist”).
  7. contract of alliance
      ―  jiǔyāo  ―  former contract
  8. A surname​.

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (よう) ()
  • Korean: (, yo)
  • Vietnamese: yêu ()

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (34)
Final () (91)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔiᴇuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔiɛuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔjæuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔiawH/
Li
Rong
/ʔiɛuH/
Wang
Li
/ĭɛuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ɛuH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yào
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yào
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔjiewH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[q]ew(k)-s/
English important

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 14752
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qews/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to want; to wish; to need; to demand
    睡覺 / 睡觉  ―  yào shuìjiào.  ―  I want to sleep.
      ―  yàoyào hē chá?  ―  Do you want some tea?
    老闆馬上回復 [MSC, trad.]
    老板马上回复 [MSC, simp.]
    Lǎobǎn yào wǒ mǎshàng huífù. [Pinyin]
    My boss demanded that I reply immediately.
  2. will; going to (future auxiliary)
      ―  yào zǒu le.  ―  I am going to go.
    我們遲到 [MSC, trad.]
    我们迟到 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ pà wǒmen yào chídào le. [Pinyin]
    I fear that we will be late.
  3. about to
    出便好似落雨 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    ceot1 bin6 gam3 hak1, jau6 hou2 ci5 jiu3 lok6 jyu5 gam2. [Jyutping]
    It looks like it's going to rain outside.
  4. should; to must; to have to
      ―  yào hē jiǔ.  ―  Don't drink alcohol.
    今天一定看病 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Nǐ jīntiān yīdìng yào qù kànbìng. [Pinyin]
    You must go to the doctor today.
    一會兒老闆現在不可開交 [MSC, trad.]
    一会儿老板现在不可开交 [MSC, simp.]
    yào děng yīhuìr, wǒ de lǎobǎn xiànzài zhèng máng de bùkěkāijiāo. [Pinyin]
    You have to wait a moment. My boss is extremely busy now.
  5. vital; important
      ―  zhòngyào  ―  important
      ―  zhǔyào  ―  main
  6. if; in case of
    腰帶用不著吊帶 [MSC, trad.]
    腰带用不着吊带 [MSC, simp.]
    Yào jì yāodài, jiù yòngbùzháo diàodài le. [Pinyin]
    You don't need braces if you're wearing a belt.

Usage notesEdit

  • Beware that 要飯要饭 (yàofàn, literally “to want rice”) is a phrase with the meaning "to be a beggar/loafer" which is insulting to others and should be avoided when asking a person whether they want rice.
SynonymsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

See also 要する

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. need, necessity
  2. essential

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
よう
Grade: 4
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiᴇu, ʔiᴇuH).

First cited to 611.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(よう) (えう (eu)?

  1. [611] key, important point
  2. [circa 999] essential piece of something, requirement

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
かなめ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
 
(kaname, kanome): the kaname is the metal rivet at the base of the handle.
 
(kaname, kanome): close-up of the kaname of a fan.

/kani no me//kanome//kaname/

A shift from older 蟹の目 (kani no me, crab's eye) from a superficial resemblance of the round pinhead of a folding fan to a crab's eye, influenced by a reanalysis of the term as (kaname, literally “metal” + visually prominent feature), as the pins were increasingly made from metal instead of earlier bamboo, wood, or whalebone.

First cited to 1220.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(かなめ) (kaname

  1. [1254] the pin or rivet holding the spines of a folding fan together
    Synonyms: (kanome), 蟹の目 (kani no me)
  2. [1220] (by extension) a pivot, cornerstone, keystone
    Synonym: 要石 (kaname ishi) (cornerstone, keystone)
  3. [1612] a pin, often decorated, holding the handle to the tang of a katana
    Synonym: 目貫 (menuki)
  4. [1712] short for 要黐 (kaname mochi), a kind of tree, the Japanese photinia or Photinia glabra
    Synonyms: カナメモチ (kaname mochi), 要黐 (kaname mochi) (kanji spelling seems to be less common)
  5. [1906] (architecture) in a certain kind of traditional Japanese hip roof where the rafters splay out like the spines of a fan, the central point to which the rafter lines converge
    Coordinate term: 扇垂木 (ōgi taruki) (literally “fan rafter”)

Proper nounEdit

(かなめ) (Kaname

  1. a female given name

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
かのめ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

/kani no me//kanome/

A shift from older 蟹の目 (kani no me, crab's eye) from a superficial resemblance of the round pinhead of a folding fan to a crab's eye, influenced by a reanalysis of the term as (kaname, literally “metal” + visually prominent feature), as the pins were increasingly made from metal instead of earlier bamboo, wood, or whalebone.

First cited to roughly 1140.[1] This reading may be obsolete, and it is not included in some dictionaries.[2][3][4]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(かのめ) (kanome

  1. [circa 1140] (archaic, possibly obsolete) the pin or rivet holding the spines of a folding fan together
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
ぬみ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Kanji in this term
ぬま
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
要害

From Old Japanese. Further derivation unknown.

First cited in the Nihon Shoki of 720 C.E., listed with both readings numa and numi.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(ぬま) or (ぬみ) (numa or numi

  1. [720] (archaic, possibly obsolete) fortress, redoubt
  2. [720] (archaic, possibly obsolete) important point, key

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Further readingEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 중요할 (jung-yohal yo))

  1. Hanja form? of (importance).

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: yếu

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.