See also:
U+8981, 要
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8981

[U+8980]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8982]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 146, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 一田女 (MWV), four-corner 10404, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1128, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34768
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1597, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2805, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8981

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Pictogram (象形): a woman () with two hands pointing to her midsection.

Original meaning was “waist” (now (OC *qew)). The hands gradually shifted upwards; the in the modern form evolved from the hands and the woman's head.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • iou1 - Chaozhou;
  • iao1 - Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (91)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔiᴇu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔiɛu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔjæu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔiaw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiɛu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭɛu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯ɛu/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yāo
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jiu1
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 14748
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qew/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to demand; to ask; to request
        ―  yāoqiú  ―  to request
    2. to force; to coerce
      /   ―  yāoxié  ―  to threaten, to blackmail
    3. to promise
      /   ―  yāoyuē  ―  to restrict, to agree to a contract/offer/bid
    4. to block; to intercept
      /   ―  yāo  ―  to intercept, to ambush
    5. Alternative form of (“to invite”).
    6. Alternative form of (“waist”).
    7. contract of alliance
        ―  jiǔyāo  ―  former contract
    8. A surname​.

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (よう) ()
    • Korean: (, yo)
    • Vietnamese: yêu ()

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note:
    • iou3 - Chaozhou;
    • iao3 - Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (91)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔiᴇuH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔiɛuH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔjæuH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔiawH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiɛuH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭɛuH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯ɛuH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yào
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jiu3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yào
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔjiewH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[q]ew(k)-s/
    English important

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 14752
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qews/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to want; to wish
      睡覺 / 睡觉  ―  yào shuìjiào.  ―  I want to sleep.
        ―  yàoyào hē chá?  ―  Do you want some tea?
    2. to wish to have or keep
      手機 / 手机  ―  yào yī bù xīn shǒujī.  ―  He wants to have a new cell phone.
    3. to ask for
      啤酒  ―  yào le yī píng píjiǔ.  ―  I asked for a bottle of beer.
      弟弟媽媽 [MSC, trad.]
      弟弟妈妈 [MSC, simp.]
      Dìdì yòu gēn māmā yào qián le. [Pinyin]
      My brother asked mom for money again.
    4. to request
      [MSC, trad.]
      [MSC, simp.]
      yào wǒ gěi tā mǎi běn shū. [Pinyin]
      He requested that I buy a book for him.
      老闆馬上回覆 [MSC, trad.]
      老板马上回覆 [MSC, simp.]
      Lǎobǎn yào wǒ mǎshàng huífù. [Pinyin]
      My boss demanded that I reply immediately.
    5. to need
      這裡上海小時 [MSC, trad.]
      这里上海小时 [MSC, simp.]
      Cóng zhèlǐ dào Shànghǎi yào liǎng ge xiǎoshí. [Pinyin]
      It takes two hours to reach Shanghai from here.
      孩子多少 [MSC, trad.]
      孩子多少 [MSC, simp.]
      Yǎng dà yī ge háizǐ yào duōshào qián? [Pinyin]
      How much does it take to raise a child?
    6. will; going to (future auxiliary)
        ―  yào zǒu le.  ―  I am going to go.
      我們遲到 [MSC, trad.]
      我们迟到 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ pà wǒmen yào chídào le. [Pinyin]
      I fear that we will be late.
      出便好似落雨 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      ceot1 bin6 gam3 hak1, jau6 hou2 ci5 jiu3 lok6 jyu5 gam2. [Jyutping]
      It looks like it's going to rain outside.
    7. should; to must; to have to
        ―  yào hē jiǔ.  ―  Don't drink alcohol.
      今天一定看病 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Nǐ jīntiān yīdìng yào qù kànbìng. [Pinyin]
      You must go to the doctor today.
      一會兒老闆現在不可開交 [MSC, trad.]
      一会儿老板现在不可开交 [MSC, simp.]
      yào děng yīhuìr, wǒ de lǎobǎn xiànzài zhèng máng de bùkěkāijiāo. [Pinyin]
      You have to wait a moment. My boss is extremely busy now.
    8. vital; important
        ―  zhòngyào  ―  important
        ―  zhǔyào  ―  main
    9. if; in case of
      腰帶用不著吊帶 [MSC, trad.]
      腰带用不着吊带 [MSC, simp.]
      Yào jì yāodài, jiù yòngbùzháo diàodài le. [Pinyin]
      You don't need braces if you're wearing a belt.

    Usage notesEdit

    • Beware that 要飯要饭 (yàofàn, literally “to want rice”) is a phrase with the meaning "to be a beggar/loafer" which is insulting to others and should be avoided when asking a person whether they want rice.
    SynonymsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    See also 要する

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. need, necessity
    2. essential

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    よう
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiᴇu, ʔiᴇuH).

    First cited to 611.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (よう) (えう (eu)?

    1. [611] key, important point
    2. [circa 999] essential piece of something, requirement

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かなめ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
     
    (kaname, kanome): the kaname is the metal rivet at the base of the handle.
     
    (kaname, kanome): close-up of the kaname of a fan.

    /kani no me//kanome//kaname/

    A shift from older 蟹の目 (kani no me, crab's eye) from a superficial resemblance of the round pinhead of a folding fan to a crab's eye, influenced by a reanalysis of the term as (kaname, literally “metal” + visually prominent feature), as the pins were increasingly made from metal instead of earlier bamboo, wood, or whalebone.

    First cited to 1220.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (かなめ) (kaname

    1. [1254] the pin or rivet holding the spines of a folding fan together
      Synonyms: (kanome), 蟹の目 (kani no me)
    2. [1220] (by extension) a pivot, cornerstone, keystone
      Synonym: (cornerstone, keystone) 要石 (kaname ishi)
    3. [1612] a pin, often decorated, holding the handle to the tang of a katana
      Synonym: 目貫 (menuki)
    4. [1712] short for 要黐 (kaname mochi), a kind of tree, the Japanese photinia or Photinia glabra
      Synonyms: カナメモチ (kaname mochi), (kanji spelling seems to be less common) 要黐 (kaname mochi)
    5. [1906] (architecture) in a certain kind of traditional Japanese hip roof where the rafters splay out like the spines of a fan, the central point to which the rafter lines converge
      Coordinate term: (literally “fan rafter”) 扇垂木 (ōgi taruki)

    Proper nounEdit

    (かなめ) (Kaname

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かのめ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    /kani no me//kanome/

    A shift from older 蟹の目 (kani no me, crab's eye) from a superficial resemblance of the round pinhead of a folding fan to a crab's eye, influenced by a reanalysis of the term as (kaname, literally “metal” + visually prominent feature), as the pins were increasingly made from metal instead of earlier bamboo, wood, or whalebone.

    First cited to roughly 1140.[1] This reading may be obsolete, and it is not included in some dictionaries.[2][3][4]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (かのめ) (kanome

    1. [circa 1140] (archaic, possibly obsolete) the pin or rivet holding the spines of a folding fan together
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぬみ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    Kanji in this term
    ぬま
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    要害

    From Old Japanese. Further derivation unknown.

    First cited in the Nihon Shoki of 720 C.E., listed with both readings numa and numi.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (ぬま) or (ぬみ) (numa or numi

    1. [720] (archaic, possibly obsolete) fortress, redoubt
    2. [720] (archaic, possibly obsolete) important point, key

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Further readingEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 중요할 (jung'yohal yo))

    1. Hanja form? of (importance).

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: yếu

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.