See also: and
U+4E5F, 也
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E5F

[U+4E5E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E60]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 5, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 心木 (PD), four-corner 44712, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 84, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 171
  • Dae Jaweon: page 170, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 50, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E5F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Uncertain. There are various possible explanations:

  • The traditional glyph origin given in Shuowen explains the character to be a pictogram (象形) of female genitalia.
  • It is possibly a pictogram (象形) of an ancient funnel or wash basin. It may be an early form of .
  • It was once interchangeable with and may have originated as a simplification.
  • It may have been created to represent the modal particle (語氣詞语气词 (yǔqìcí)). In some bronze inscriptions, it appears to be a mouth () with a curved line descending from it to represent air coming out of the mouth.
  • It may have signified a big-headed scorpion with its legs flattened, signifying as something very "flat" or "stretched out".

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ǎ - vernacular;
  • iǎ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • iâ - vernacular;
    • iá - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • iā/iǎ/ā/ǎ - vernacular;
    • iá - literary.
    Note: a7 - “if”.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (100)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jiaX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiaX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /iaX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jiaX/
    Li
    Rong
    /iaX/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭaX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯aX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    je5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ X ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*lAjʔ/
    English (final particle)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14773
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*laːlʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. also; too; as well; (in negative sentences) neither; either
        ―  qù le.  ―  I also went.
      中國人 / 中国人  ―  shì zhōngguórén.  ―  I am Chinese too.
      如果 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Nǐ rúguǒ bù qù, wǒ bù qù. [Pinyin]
      If you don't go, I won't either.
      沒有看見 [MSC, trad.]
      没有看见 [MSC, simp.]
      méiyǒu kànjiàn guò tā. [Pinyin]
      I haven't seen it either.
    2. Used for emphasis.
      不像話 / 不像话  ―  Zhè tài bùxiànghuà le.  ―  This is way too outrageous.
      1. With object fronting.
        [MSC, trad.]
        [MSC, simp.]
        Tā fàn bù chī, jiào bù shuì. [Pinyin]
        (Disappointingly) he neither eats nor sleeps.
      2. Used in the ……也…… constructions for stronger emphasis. Interchangeable with . even
        畜生不如自己父母養活 [MSC, trad.]
        畜生不如自己父母养活 [MSC, simp.]
        Tā lián xùshēng bùrú, lián zìjǐ de fùmǔ bù yǎnghuó. [Pinyin]
        He is no better than an animal, because he doesn't even support his own parents.
      3. Used in the ……也…… concessive constructions. still, anyway, nevertheless
        聰明回答不了問題 [MSC, trad.]
        聪明回答不了问题 [MSC, simp.]
        Nǐ zài cōngmíng, huídá bùliǎo zhè ge wèntí. [Pinyin]
        No matter how smart you are, you won't be able to answer this question.
    3. An emphatic final particle of strong affirmation or identity; indeed.
      [Classical Chinese]  ―  Shēng ér zhī zhī zhě, shàng . [Pinyin]  ―  Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest class of men.
      西天下 [Classical Chinese, trad. and simp.]
      Qí xī yǒu dà shān, tiānxià zhì gāo zhě . [Pinyin]
      Laden with surrounding mountains, it is clearly the most supreme under heaven.
    4. (Teochew) if
    5. A surname​. Ye

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. to be
    2. also
    3. too

    ReadingsEdit

    • Go-on: (ya); (e)
    • Kan-on: (ya)
    • Kun: なり (nari, ); (ka); また (mata, )

    As an alternative form of :

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term
    なり
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    なり
    [verb] (Classical Japanese or literary) the classical copula “to be”, equivalent to modern Japanese である (de aru) or (da), or adjective particle (na)
    [particle] Used when giving an example, without the implication that it might be the best or the only option
    [particle] ... or ...
    [particle] (after a verb in the dictionary form) ... as soon as ...
    [particle] (after a verb in the past tense ) ... while ...
    Alternative spellings
    , 𬼂, 𬻿
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 잇기 (itgi ya))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    (eumhun 어조사 (eojosa ya))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    (eumhun 잇달을 (itdareul ya))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: giã,
    : Nôm readings: dạ, , giã,

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit

    • Hồ Lê (1976). Bảng Tra Chữ Nôm. Hanoi: Viện Ngôn Ngữ Học.
    • Nguyễn, Quang Hồng (2014). Tự Điển Chữ Nôm Dẫn Giải (Nôm Characters with Quotations and Annotations). Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Khoa học Xã hội (Social Sciences Publishing House).
    • Williams, Noriko Kurosawa (2010). "The Key to Kanji". Boston: Cheng & Tsui Company, Inc.