See also: , , and
U+4E5D, 九
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E5D

[U+4E5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E5E]
U+3228, ㈨
PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH NINE

[U+3227]
Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
[U+3229]
U+3288, ㊈
CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH NINE

[U+3287]
Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
[U+3289]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 5, +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大弓 (KN), four-corner 40017, composition )

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 83, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 167
  • Dae Jaweon: page 168, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 48, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E5D

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms financial
𠔀
𢌬
𣲄
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Classical)
  • 9 (Min Dong)
  • 9 (Min Nan)
 
The number nine in Chinese number gestures

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a stylized hand, with bent wrist/forearm (hence the hook stroke at lower right). Earlier forms resemble , . The original meaning of the glyph was “elbow”, which is now written (OC *tkuʔ).

After the meaning “elbow” was forgotten, was taken to symbolize a fist tightening to bump up against something; thus, there is a metaphorical bumping up of nine against ten, which is the last number when counting on one's fingers.

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d/s-kəw. Compare Tibetan དགུ (dgu).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • gāu - vernacular;
  • giū - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • káu - vernacular;
    • kiú - literary.
    Note:
    • gao2 - vernacular;
    • giu2 - literary.
    • (Leizhou)
      • Leizhou Pinyin: gao2
      • Sinological IPA: /kau³¹/
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter kjuwX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɨuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kiuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiəuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kuwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭəuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jiǔ
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gau2
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jiǔ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjuwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]uʔ/
    English nine

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6941
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kuʔ/

    Definitions edit

    1. nine
    2. (figurative) many
    3. (weather) each of the nine nine-day periods from the winter solstice
      • [MSC, trad. and simp.]
        From: “The Nine Nine-Day Periods Song”, a folk song
        jiǔ èr jiǔ bù chū shǒu, sān jiǔjiǔ bīng shàng zǒu. [Pinyin]
        In the first and the second nine-day period, one should not take out one's hand; / In the third and the fourth nine-day period, the ice is thick enough to stand.
    4. (Cantonese, minced oath, euphemistic) Synonym of (gau1, penis)
    See also edit
    • (gōu) (in radio communications)
    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 106 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    , , , , ,
    十千 (Malaysia, Singapore)
    百萬百万,
    (Philippines),
    面桶 (Philippines)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ku); (きゅう) (kyū)
    • Korean: 구(九) (gu)
    • Vietnamese: cửu ()

    Others:

    Etymology 2 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to gather; to assemble”).
    (This character, , is an obsolete form of ).

    Japanese edit

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  8 9 10  > 
        Cardinal :

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. nine

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    goon
    Alternative spelling

    From Early Middle Chinese (MC kjuwX). The goon, the initial reading when first borrowed into Japanese.

    Pronunciation edit

    Number edit

    () (ku

    1. nine
    2. ninth

    Noun edit

    () (ku

    1. nine
    2. the ninth

    Coordinate terms edit

    Japanese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    Regular (れい) (rei)
    (ゼロ) (zero)
    (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (よん) (yon)
    () (shi)
    () (go) (ろく) (roku) (なな) (nana)
    (しち) (shichi)
    (はち) (hachi) (きゅう) (kyū)
    () (ku)
    (じゅう) ()
    Formal (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (じゅう) ()
    90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
    Regular (きゅう)(じゅう) (kyūjū) (ひゃく) (hyaku)
    (いっ)(ぴゃく) (ippyaku)
    (さん)(びゃく) (sanbyaku) (ろっ)(ぴゃく) (roppyaku) (はっ)(ぴゃく) (happyaku) (せん) (sen)
    (いっ)(せん) (issen)
    (さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (いち)(まん) (ichiman) (いち)(おく) (ichioku)
    Formal (いち)(まん) (ichiman)
    1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
    (いっ)(ちょう) (itchō) (はっ)(ちょう) (hatchō) (じゅっ)(ちょう) (jutchō) (いっ)(けい) (ikkei) (ろっ)(けい) (rokkei) (はっ)(けい) (hakkei) (じゅっ)(けい) (jukkei) (ひゃっ)(けい) (hyakkei)

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    きゅう
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC kjuwX). The kan'on, a later reading. Borrowed after palatalisation occurred in Middle Chinese. Compare modern Hakka reading giu3.

    Pronunciation edit

    • (file)

    Number edit

    (きゅう) (kyūきう (kiu)?

    1. nine

    Noun edit

    (きゅう) (kyūきう (kiu)?

    1. nine
    2. : an indeterminate large number, a myriad, a great many
    3. (divination) the number of yang, in opposition to (roku, six) as the number of yin

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ここの
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese,[2] from Proto-Japonic *kəkənə.

    Pronunciation edit

    Number edit

    (ここの) (kokono

    1. nine

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term
    この
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kokono//kono/

    Abbreviation of Old Japanese kokono (“nine”).

    Pronunciation edit

    Number edit

    (この) (kono

    1. nine
      ひい、ふう、みい、…なな、やあ、この、とお
      hī, fū, mī,…nana, yā, kono, tō
      one, two, three, ... seven, eight, nine, ten
    Usage notes edit

    Generally only used when counting out loud, as in the example above. In writing, usually found spelled out in hiragana as この to make the reading unambiguous.

    Alternative forms edit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Korean numbers (edit)
    90
     ←  8 9 10  → 
        Native isol.: 아홉 (ahop)
        Native attr.: 아홉 (ahop)
        Sino-Korean: (gu)
        Hanja:
        Ordinal: 아홉째 (ahopjjae)

    From Middle Chinese (MC kjuwX).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 아홉 (ahop gu))

    1. Hanja form? of (nine).

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Related to Middle Chinese (MC kjiwX).

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 모을 (mo'eul gyu))

    1. (archaic) Hanja form? of (to gather; to collect).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: cửu[1][2]
    : Nôm readings: cửu[1][3][4]

    1. chữ Hán form of cửu (nine).

    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    Zhuang edit

    Noun edit

    1. Sawndip form of gyaeuj (head; headhair)