See also: , , and
U+4E5D, 九
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E5D

[U+4E5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E5E]
Commons:Category
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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 5, +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大弓 (KN), four-corner 40017, composition丿)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 83, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 167
  • Dae Jaweon: page 168, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 48, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E5D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms financial
𠔀
𢌬
𣲄
 
The number nine in Chinese number gestures

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a stylized hand, with bent wrist/forearm (hence the hook stroke at lower right). Earlier forms resemble , . The original meaning of the glyph was “elbow”, which is now written (OC *tkuʔ).

After the meaning “elbow” was forgotten, was taken to symbolize a fist tightening to bump up against something; thus, there is a metaphorical bumping up of nine against ten, which is the last number when counting on one's fingers.

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d/s-kəw. Compare Tibetan དགུ (dgu).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • gāu - vernacular;
  • giū - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • káu - vernacular;
    • kiú - literary.
    Note:
    • gao2 - vernacular;
    • giu2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɨuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kiuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiəuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kuwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭəuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jiǔ
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jiǔ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjuwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]uʔ/
    English nine

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6941
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kuʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. nine
    2. (figuratively) many
    3. (weather) each of the nine nine-day periods from the winter solstice
      • [MSC, trad. and simp.]
        From: “The Nine Nine-Day Periods Song”, a folk song
        jiǔ èr jiǔ bù chū shǒu, sān jiǔjiǔ bīng shàng zǒu. [Pinyin]
        In the first and the second nine-day period, one should not take out one's hand; / In the third and the fourth nine-day period, the ice is thick enough to stand.
    4. (Cantonese, euphemistic) Synonym of (gau1, “penis”).
    See alsoEdit
    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ku); (きゅう) (kyū)
    • Korean: (, gu)
    • Vietnamese: cửu ()

    Others:

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to gather; to assemble”).
    (This character, , is an obsolete form of .)

    JapaneseEdit

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  8 9 10  > 
        Cardinal :

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. nine

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    goon
    Alternative spelling

    From Early Middle Chinese (MC kɨuX). The goon, the initial reading when first borrowed into Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NumberEdit

    () (ku

    1. nine
    2. ninth

    NounEdit

    () (ku

    1. nine
    2. the ninth

    Coordinate termsEdit

    Japanese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    Regular (れい) (rei)
    (ゼロ) (zero)
    (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (よん) (yon)
    () (shi)
    () (go) (ろく) (roku) (なな) (nana)
    (しち) (shichi)
    (はち) (hachi) (きゅう) (kyū)
    () (ku)
    (じゅう) ()
    Formal (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (じゅう) ()
    90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
    Regular (きゅう)(じゅう) (kyūjū) (ひゃく) (hyaku)
    (いっ)(ぴゃく) (ippyaku)
    (さん)(びゃく) (sanbyaku) (ろっ)(ぴゃく) (roppyaku) (はっ)(ぴゃく) (happyaku) (せん) (sen)
    (いっ)(せん) (issen)
    (さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (いち)(まん) (ichiman) (いち)(おく) (ichioku)
    Formal (いち)(まん) (ichiman)
    1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
    (いっ)(ちょう) (itchō) (はっ)(ちょう) (hatchō) (じゅっ)(ちょう) (jutchō) (いっ)(けい) (ikkei) (ろっ)(けい) (rokkei) (はっ)(けい) (hakkei) (じゅっ)(けい) (jukkei) (ひゃっ)(けい) (hyakkei)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    きゅう
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC kɨuX). The kan'on, a later reading. Borrowed after palatalisation occurred in Middle Chinese.

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Tokyo) きゅ [kyúꜜù] (Atamadaka – [1])[1]
    • IPA(key): [kʲɨᵝː]
    • (file)

    NumberEdit

    (きゅう) (kyū (historical kana きう)

    1. nine

    NounEdit

    (きゅう) (kyū (historical kana きう)

    1. nine
    2. : an indeterminate large number, a myriad, a great many
    3. (divination) the number of yang, in opposition to (roku, six) as the number of yin

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ここの
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese,[2] from Proto-Japonic *kəkənə.

    PronunciationEdit

    NumberEdit

    (ここの) (kokono

    1. nine

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    この
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kokono//kono/

    Abbreviation of Old Japanese kokono (“nine”).

    PronunciationEdit

    NumberEdit

    (この) (kono

    1. nine
      ひい、ふう、みい、…なな、やあ、この、とお
      hī, fū, mī, …nana, yā, kono, tō
      one, two, three, ... seven, eight, nine, ten
    Alternative formsEdit
    Usage notesEdit

    Generally only used when counting out loud, as in the example above. In writing, usually found spelled out in hiragana as この to make the reading unambiguous.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kɨuX). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: kwu) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 아홉 (ahop gu))

    1. Hanja form? of (nine).
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 모을 (mo-eul gu))

    1. (archaic) Hanja form? of (to gather; to collect).

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: cửu[1][2]
    : Nôm readings: cửu[1][3][4]

    1. Hán tự form of cửu (nine).

    ReferencesEdit