U+4E5D, 九
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E5D

[U+4E5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E5E]
See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 5 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大弓 (KN), four-corner 40017, composition丿)

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 83, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 167
  • Dae Jaweon: page 168, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E5D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms financial
𠔀
𢌬
𣲄

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰuː
*kʰuː, *kʰu, *ɡu
*krɯːw, *qʰrɯːw, *ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*qʰruː
*ku
*ku
*kuʔ
*kus
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*ɡu, *kʷrɯwʔ
*ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*kʷrɯwʔ
*kʷrɯwʔ
氿 *kʷrɯwʔ
*kʷrɯwʔ
*kuɡ
*qʰʷoɡ

Pictogram (象形) – a stylized hand, with bent wrist/forearm (hence the hook stroke at lower right). Earlier forms resemble , . The original meaning of the glyph was “elbow”, which is now written (OC *tkuʔ).

After the meaning “elbow” was forgotten, was taken to symbolize a fist tightening to bump up against something; thus, there is a metaphorical bumping up of nine against ten, which is the the last number when counting on one's fingers.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d/s-kəw. Compare Tibetan དགུ(dgu).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • gāu - vernacular;
  • giū - literary.
Note:
  • káu - vernacular;
  • kiú - literary.
Note:
  • gao2 - vernacular;
  • giu2 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kuwX/
Li
Rong
/kiuX/
Wang
Li
/kĭəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯ə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiǔ
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]uʔ/
English nine

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6941
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kuʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. nine
  2. (figuratively) many
  3. (weather) each of the nine nine-day periods from the winter solstice

See alsoEdit

Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
Cardinal

亿
Financial




亿

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():

Others:


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. nine

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  8 9 10  > 
    Cardinal :

From Early Middle Chinese. Goon, the initial reading when first borrowed into Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NumberEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji ku)

  1. nine
  2. ninth

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji ku)

  1. nine
  2. the ninth

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Chinese. Kan'on, a later reading. Borrowed after palatalisation occurred in Middle Chinese.

PronunciationEdit

NumberEdit

‎(hiragana きゅう, romaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

  1. nine

NounEdit

‎(hiragana きゅう, romaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

  1. nine
  2. an indeterminate large number, a myriad, a great many
  3. (divination) the number of yang, in opposition to (roku, six) as the number of yin
Alternative formsEdit
  • (large number):

Etymology 3Edit

From Old Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

CounterEdit

‎(hiragana ここの, romaji -kokono)

  1. nine

Etymology 4Edit

/kokono//kono/

Abbreviation of Old Japanese kokono (“nine”).

PronunciationEdit

NumberEdit

‎(hiragana この, romaji kono)

  1. nine
    ひい、ふう、みい、…なな、やあ、この、とお
    hī, fū, mī, ... nana, yā, kono, tō
    one, two, three, ... seven, eight, nine, ten
Alternative formsEdit
Usage notesEdit

Generally only used when counting out loud, as in the example above. In writing, usually found spelled out in hiragana as この to make the reading unambiguous.

ReferencesEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(gu)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: gu, McCune-Reischauer: ku, Yale: kwu)
  • Name (hangeul): 아홉 (revised: ahop, McCune-Reischauer: ahop, Yale: ahop)
  1. nine

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(cửu)

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