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U+4E5D, 九
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E5D

[U+4E5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E5E]
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Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 5 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大弓 (KN), four-corner 40017, composition丿)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 83, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 167
  • Dae Jaweon: page 168, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E5D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms financial
𠔀
𢌬
𣲄

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰuː
*kʰuː, *kʰu, *ɡu
*krɯːw, *qʰrɯːw, *ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*qʰruː
*ku
*ku
*kuʔ
*kus
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*ɡu, *kʷrɯwʔ
*ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*kʷrɯwʔ
*kʷrɯwʔ
氿 *kʷrɯwʔ
*kʷrɯwʔ
*kuɡ
*qʰʷoɡ

Pictogram (象形) – a stylized hand, with bent wrist/forearm (hence the hook stroke at lower right). Earlier forms resemble , . The original meaning of the glyph was “elbow”, which is now written (OC *tkuʔ).

After the meaning “elbow” was forgotten, was taken to symbolize a fist tightening to bump up against something; thus, there is a metaphorical bumping up of nine against ten, which is the last number when counting on one's fingers.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d/s-kəw. Compare Tibetan དགུ (dgu).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • gāu - vernacular;
  • giū - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • káu - vernacular;
    • kiú - literary.
    Note:
    • gao2 - vernacular;
    • giu2 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɨuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kiuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiəuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kuwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭəuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jiǔ
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jiǔ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjuwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]uʔ/
    English nine

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6941
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kuʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. nine
    2. (figuratively) many
    3. (weather) each of the nine nine-day periods from the winter solstice

    See alsoEdit

    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  () (ku);  (きゅう) (kyū)
    • Korean: (, gu)
    • Vietnamese: cửu ()

    Others:


    JapaneseEdit

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  8 9 10  > 
        Cardinal :

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. nine

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Early Middle Chinese. Goon, the initial reading when first borrowed into Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NumberEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ku)

    1. nine
    2. ninth

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ku)

    1. nine
    2. the ninth

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese. Kan'on, a later reading. Borrowed after palatalisation occurred in Middle Chinese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NumberEdit

    (hiragana きゅう, rōmaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

    1. nine

    NounEdit

    (hiragana きゅう, rōmaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

    1. nine
    2. an indeterminate large number, a myriad, a great many
    3. (divination) the number of yang, in opposition to (roku, six) as the number of yin
    Alternative formsEdit
    • (large number):

    Etymology 3Edit

    From Old Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NumberEdit

    (hiragana ここの, rōmaji kokono)

    1. nine

    Etymology 4Edit

    /kokono//kono/

    Abbreviation of Old Japanese kokono (“nine”).

    PronunciationEdit

    NumberEdit

    (hiragana この, rōmaji kono)

    1. nine
      ひい、ふう、みい、…なな、やあ、この、とお
      hī, fū, mī, …nana, yā, kono, tō
      one, two, three, ... seven, eight, nine, ten
    Alternative formsEdit
    Usage notesEdit

    Generally only used when counting out loud, as in the example above. In writing, usually found spelled out in hiragana as この to make the reading unambiguous.

    ReferencesEdit


    KoreanEdit

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (cửu)

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