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See also: HACEK and Háček



Alternative formsEdit

The central consonant, /tʃ/, is variously Anglicized as ch or tch, Germanized as tsch, Polonized as cz, or left as c, either bare or adorned with a tečka (ċ), circumflex (ĉ) or háček below it (). The final consonant is sometimes written -ck instead of -k.

Háčeks adorning, from left to right:
c, e, l, ü (used in pinyin) and σ (as in Cypriot Greek)


First attested in 1951; from the Czech háček (háček, literally little hook), the diminutive of hák (hook) (from Middle High German hāken, from Old High German hāko (hook), from Proto-Germanic *hakô (hook), from Proto-Indo-European *keg-, *keng- (peg, hook)) + the diminutive suffix -ek. Cognate with and formed like English hooklet and German Häkchen. Also cognate with Old English haca (hook, door-fastening) and modern English hake (more information below).


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háček (plural háčeks or háčky)

  1. (orthography and typography) A caron; a diacritical mark (ˇ) usually resembling an inverted circumflex, but in the cases of ď, Ľ, ľ, and ť resembling a prime () instead.
    • 1948, Bohumil Emil Mikula, Progressive Czech (Bohemian), page 6:
      The caret (ˇ), háček, is used over the following consonants: c, d, n, t, r, s, and z to indicate the soft sound.
    • 1951, Hans Jakob Polotsky, Notes on Gurage Grammar, page 5:
      Linguistic forms had to be set in ordinary roman type and the capital C of Cäxa had to be left without a háček.
    • 1956, Morris Halle (editor), For Roman Jakobson, page 332:
      Good Teutonic Kitsch looks rather forlorn and out of place wearing a Bohemian háček over its shrunken hind quarters. But the high traditions of scholarship must be maintained, and on these pages Meester Kitsch will masquerade as Mr. Kič.
    • 1966, Charles Ernest Bazell et al. (editors), In Memory of J.R. Firth, page 205:
      In the system used here and elsewhere in this article for Bantu tone, low syllables are unmarked, high syllables have an acute accent, and rising syllables a haček respectively; thus a, á, ǎ.
    • 1991, Peter Hugh Reed, American Record Guide LIV:ii, page 69
      The printer had no hatchek — the flattened “v” that appears over letters in Czech — to put over Dvořak’s R. So somebody laboriously inked in all the hatcheks.
    • 2002, Torbjörn Lundmark, Quirky QWERTY, page 34
      háček used to signify the third tone ( — ‘five’)
    • 2005, Stavroula Varella, Language Contact and the Lexicon in the History of Cypriot Greek, page 46:
      Another orthographic practice [] was developed [] in the twentieth century: this is the adoption of the hacek for the representation of the Cypriot postalveolar fricatives and affricates, which are otherwise not distinguished by the normal characters of the Greek alphabet alone. It was not until very recently, therefore, that the spellings <σ̌>, <τσ̌>, <ζ̌> and <τζ̌>, for [ʃ], [tʃ], [ʒ] and [dʒ] respectively, became available.
    • 2006, Mary Betik Trojacek, Beyond Ellis Island, page 17:
      My father always wrote Bětik with a little “v” called haĉek, above the “e”; Marušaks placed the haĉek above the “s”.
    • For more examples of the usage of this term see Citations:háček, Citations:haček, Citations:hacek, Citations:haċek, Citations:hachek, Citations:hatcheck, Citations:hatschek, Citations:hǎcek, Citations:hatchek, Citations:hacheck, Citations:hac̬ek, Citations:haczek, Citations:háçek, Citations:hácek, Citations:haĉek, Citations:haceck and Citations:háčky.


Coordinate termsEdit

Derived termsEdit



  • ‖háček” listed in the Oxford English Dictionary (2nd edition, 1989, with citations from 1953, 1959, 1980 and 1984)
    (‖ˈhaːtʃɛk, ˈhæ-) “above a consonant, it indicates palatalization (as č (tʃ), š (ʃ)) [] above e, it indicates the vowel phoneme jatʹ
  • ha•ček” listed in the Random House Unabridged Dictionary
    hä'chek “a diacritical mark (ˇ) [] [used in] Czech and Lithuanian, and in some systems of phonetic transcription”
  • ha·ček” listed in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th edition, 2000)
    häʹchĕk', from Czech háček, diminutive of hák [] , from Middle High German hāken, from Old High German hāko, from Proto-Indo-European keg-
  • háček” listed in the Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English (3rd edition, 2008)
    /ˈhɑːtʃɛk, ˈha-/ “a diacritic mark (ˇ) [] [used] in Slavic and other languages.” From Czech, diminutive of hák ‘hook’
  • háček” defined by
    “diacritical mark (inverted circumflex) [] if placed over the letter ‘c’ it changes the sound to ‘ch’”
  • háček” listed in the Collins English Dictionary online (December 2011)
    ˈhɑːtʃɛk “a diacritic mark (ˇ) [] used in Slavonic languages to indicate various forms of palatal articulation, as in [] č and [] ř used in Czech”
  • ha·ček” defined by
    /ˈhɑtʃɛk/ Also, há·ček. Also called wedge. 1950–55; from Czech háček, diminutive of hák hook, from German

Further readingEdit




hák +‎ -ek. The diminutive form of hák (hook); compare the German Häkchen. More information is in the 'Etymology' subsection of 'English' section.



háček m inan

  1. little hook (diminutive form of hák)
  2. fishhook
  3. (linguistics) háček (diacritic)
  4. catch, snag (a concealed difficulty, especially in a deal or negotiation)
  5. (canoeing) bow
    • 2005, Martin Patřičný, Dřevo krásných stromů[1], Praha: Grada Publishing, →ISBN Invalid ISBN, page 20:
      Mně se ta holka nijak zvlášť nelíbila, ale když jsem ji měl na háčku (pro nevodáky vpředu v kanoi), tak byla dobrá.
      I didn't like the girl very much, but when she was at the bow (for non-canoeists the front of the canoe), she was good.



See alsoEdit


háček m anim

  1. (canoeing) bow paddler
    • 2007, Jakub Turek; et al, Outdoorový průvodce - Český ráj: 31 tipů, kam na výlet[2], Praha: Grada Publishing, →ISBN, page 84:
      Kormidelník musí ovládat základní záběry, háček může být bez větších zkušeností.
      The stern paddler has to know the basic strokes, the bow paddler doesn't need to have much experience.





From Czech háček (háček).


háček m (plural háčeks)

  1. háček

Further readingEdit