Continues Arabic ح (ḥ) and خ (ḵ). The two phonemes were merged into /ħ/ around Valetta since at least the 18th century, but continued to be distinguished as /ħ/ and /x~χ/ elsewhere. By the later 19th century, however, this merger had established itself throughout the language (thus significantly earlier than that of għ, which compare).
ħ (upper case Ħ)
- The eleventh letter of the Maltese alphabet, called ħe and written in the Latin script.
- In contemporary Maltese, the letter ħ represents /ħ/ in all positions. Chiefly word-finally, the same phoneme may also be represented by għ or h. The actual realisation varies (by position and speaker) between [χ], [ħ], and [h]. This variation is purely allophonic.
- (Latin-script letters) ittra; A a, B b, Ċ ċ, D d, E e, F f, Ġ ġ, G g, Għ għ, H h, Ħ ħ, I i, Ie ie, J j, K k, L l, M m, N n, O o, P p, Q q, R r, S s, T t, U u, V v, W w, X x, Ż ż, Z z