Letter c.svg
c U+0063, c
LATIN SMALL LETTER C
b
[U+0062]
Basic Latin d
[U+0064]

TranslingualEdit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1Edit

  Modification of upper case letter C, from Etruscan 𐌂 (c), from Ancient Greek Γ (G, Gamma), from Phoenician 𐤂(g, gimel).

PronunciationEdit

  • (IPA symbol)
    (file)

LetterEdit

c (upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.
Usage notesEdit
  • Not to be confused with ϲ (s) (the lunate sigma).
  • In many languages, the letter c represents both a “hard” /k/ sound and a “soft” sound (/s/, /ts/, /tʃ/, or /θ/), based on the following letter.
  • In a number of languages, it is used only for the /tʃ/ sound.
  • In many languages, it occurs frequently in the digraph with ch.
  • In some romanization systems of non-Latin scripts, it represents /tʃ/, /θ/, or /tsʰ/.
See alsoEdit

SymbolEdit

c

  1. (IPA) voiceless palatal plosive.

Etymology 2Edit

Lower case form of upper case roman numeral C, a standardization of Ɔ and C because the latter happens to be an abbreviation of Latin centum (hundred), from abbreviation of ƆIC, an alternate form of >I<, from tally stick markings resembling Ж (a superimposed X and I), from the practice of designating each tenth X notch with an extra cut.

Alternative formsEdit

NumeralEdit

c (lower case Roman numeral, upper case C)

  1. cardinal number one hundred (100).
Usage notesEdit

With a bar over the numeral, i.e., as c, it represents one hundred thousand.

Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit
  • Lesser roman numeral symbol: l (50)
  • Greater roman numeral symbol: d (500)
  • Roman numerals

Etymology 3Edit

From centi-, from Latin centum (hundred).

SymbolEdit

c

  1. centi-.

Etymology 4Edit

From Latin celeritās (speed).

SymbolEdit

c

  1. (physics) The speed of light, 2.99792458 × 108 m/s.

Etymology 5Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

SymbolEdit

c

  1. (mathematics) The space of convergent sequences.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

Other representations of C:


EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

  Old English lower case letter c, from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case c of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter (c, cen).

PronunciationEdit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /siː/ (usually spelled cee)
(file)
(file)

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C, plural cs or c's)

  1. The third letter of the English alphabet, called cee and written in the Latin script.

NumberEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The ordinal number third, derived from this letter of the English alphabet, called cee and written in the Latin script.

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Various abbreviations

AdverbEdit

c

  1. Alternative form of c.

NounEdit

c

  1. Alternative form of c.

Etymology 3Edit

NounEdit

c (plural cs or c's)

  1. (music) The middle tone in either one of the sets of seven white keys on a keyboard or a set of seven strings on a stringed instrument.

Etymology 4Edit

VerbEdit

c

  1. (Internet slang, text messaging) Abbreviation of see; also C.

AfarEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c

  1. The sixth letter of the Afar alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


AlbanianEdit

PronunciationEdit

IPA(key): /t͡s(ə)/

LetterEdit

c (upper case C, lower case c)

  1. The third letter of the Albanian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


AzerbaijaniEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c lower case (upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


BasqueEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Basque alphabet, called ze and written in the Latin script.

Usage notesEdit

  • Used chiefly in recent loanwords and foreign proper nouns.

See alsoEdit


CatalanEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Catalan alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Dutch alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


EsperantoEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Esperanto alphabet, called co and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


EstonianEdit

 
Estonian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia et

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Estonian alphabet, called tsee and written in the Latin script.

Usage notesEdit

  • Used only in foreign words.

See alsoEdit


FijianEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Fijian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


FinnishEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈseː/, [ˈs̠e̞ː] (name of letter)
  • (file)

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Finnish alphabet, called see and written in the Latin script.

Usage notesEdit

  • Used only in loanwords. In more established loanwords replaced with k or s.

See alsoEdit

NounEdit

c

  1. (music) C (note)

Usage notesEdit

Capitalized for the great octave or any octave below that, or in names of major keys; not capitalized for the small octave or any octave above that, or in names of minor keys.

DeclensionEdit


FrenchEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the French alphabet, written in the Latin script.
    • 1837, Louis Viardot, L’Ingénieux Hidalgo Don Quichotte de la Manchefr.Wikisource, translation of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Chapter I:
      Avec ces propos et d’autres semblables, le pauvre gentilhomme perdait le jugement. Il passait les nuits et se donnait la torture pour les comprendre, pour les approfondir, pour leur tirer le sens des entrailles, ce qu’Aristote lui-même n’aurait pu faire, s’il fût ressuscité tout exprès pour cela.
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
      With these passages and other similar ones, the poor gentleman lost his judgement. He spent his nights and tortured himself to understand them, to consider them more deeply, to take from them their deepest meaning, which Aristotle himself would not have been able to do, had he been resurrected for that very purpose.

ContractionEdit

c

  1. (text messaging, Internet slang) Informal spelling of c'est
    C nul ici sans George
    It's rubbish here without George

FulaEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. A letter of the Fula alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Usage notesEdit

See alsoEdit


HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The fourth letter of the Hungarian alphabet, called and written in the Latin script.

DeclensionEdit

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative c c-k
accusative c-t c-ket
dative c-nek c-knek
instrumental c-vel c-kkel
causal-final c-ért c-kért
translative c-vé c-kké
terminative c-ig c-kig
essive-formal c-ként c-kként
essive-modal
inessive c-ben c-kben
superessive c-n c-ken
adessive c-nél c-knél
illative c-be c-kbe
sublative c-re c-kre
allative c-hez c-khez
elative c-ből c-kből
delative c-ről c-kről
ablative c-től c-ktől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
c-é c-ké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
c-éi c-kéi
Possessive forms of c
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. c-m c-im
2nd person sing. c-d c-id
3rd person sing. c-je c-i
1st person plural c-nk c-ink
2nd person plural c-tek c-itek
3rd person plural c-jük c-ik

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


IdoEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (context pronunciation) IPA(key): /ts/
  • (letter name) IPA(key): /tse/

LetterEdit

c (upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Ido alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


IndonesianEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /t͡ʃe/ (standard)
  • (letter name): IPA(key): /se/ (variant, Dutch-influenced)
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /tʃ/

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Indonesian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


InterlinguaEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /tse/
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /k/ before 'a'/'o'/'u', /ts/ before 'i'/'e'/'y'

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Interlingua alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


ItalianEdit

NounEdit

c m or f (invariable)

  1. see under C

JapaneseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Short of ちゃん (chan).

SuffixEdit

c(ちゃん) (-chan

  1. (teen girl's slang) Alternative spelling of ちゃん (chan)

Related termsEdit


LatvianEdit

 
Latvian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia lv

EtymologyEdit

Proposed in 1908 as part of the new Latvian spelling by the scientific commission headed by K. Mīlenbahs, which was accepted and began to be taught in schools in 1909. Prior to that, Latvian had been written in German Fraktur, and sporadically in Cyrillic.

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

 
C

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The fourth letter of the Latvian alphabet, called and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


LushootseedEdit

LetterEdit

c

  1. The fifth letter of the Lushootseed alphabet, pronounced as a voiceless alveolar affricate.

MalayEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


Norwegian BokmålEdit

 
Norwegian Bokmål Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nb
 
The letter C, c from the Norwegian alphabet, in two different fonts.

Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin c, from the uppercase letter C, from Etruscan Etruscan 𐌂 (c), from Ancient Greek Γ (G, Gamma), from Phoenician 𐤂(g, gimel).

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (uppercase C)

  1. The third letter of the Norwegian Bokmål alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit

NounEdit

c m (definite singular c-en, indefinite plural c-er, definite plural c-ene)

  1. the letter c, the third letter of the Norwegian alphabet
  2. indicates the third entry in a list, order or rank
    • 1857, Henrik Wergeland, Samlede Skrifter VIII, page 515:
      [jeg har] allerede sagt A. Traditionen vil nok lægge B. og C. til
      [I have] already said A. Tradition will probably add B. and C. to
    • 1939, Knut Hamsun, Artikler, page 100:
      historie er, hvad A mener til forskel fra B, og hvad C igen mener til forskel fra A og B
      history is what A means as a difference from B, and what C in turn means as a difference from A and B
  3. (music) C, c-note (the first note in the C chromatic and major scales; the lowest note of an instrument, written below the staff and the D note)
    • 1997, Tove Nilsen, G for Georg, page 42:
      så gal at man virkelig tror at svaler er g-nøkler og bass-nøkler og a’er og c’er som svever rundt hverandre og lager konsert i himmelen
      so crazy that you really think swallows are g-keys and bass-keys and a's and c's floating around each other and making a concert in the sky
    den høye Chigh C
    • 1939, Knut Hamsun, Artikler, page 100:
      [de] larmet ikke og gik ikke og tok det høie C
      [they] did not make noise and did not go and did the high C
    • 1999, Børre Qvamme, Opera, operette og ballett gjennom tidene, page 70:
      Duprez vakte sensasjon ved sine ut de poitrine, høy c tatt som brysttone
      Duprez aroused sensation by his out de poitrine, high c taken as chest tone
    • 2000, Pål Gerhard Olsen, Fredstid:
      han gjør stolen hennes tobent så hun når den høye c av forskrekkelse
      he makes her chair two-legged so she reaches the high c out of fright
  4. (grammar) Abbreviation of genus commune.

Usage notesEdit

  • Only used in words of foreign origin, usually English. Even rare in loanwords, as this letter does not represent a sound of its own.
  • Still kept in many Christian names, therefore Caroline and Karoline are both acceptable spellings.

Etymology 2Edit

Abbreviation of centi- (centi-), from Latin centum (hundred), from Proto-Italic *kentom (hundred), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱm̥tóm (hundred), from *déḱm̥ (ten).

PronunciationEdit

SymbolEdit

c

  1. Abbreviation of centi-.

Etymology 3Edit

Abbreviation of cent, from English cent, from Middle English cent, from Old French cent (one hundred), from Latin centum (hundred), from Proto-Italic *kentom (hundred), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱm̥tóm (hundred), from *déḱm̥ (ten).

PronunciationEdit

SymbolEdit

c

  1. Abbreviation of cent.

Etymology 4Edit

Abbreviation of centime, from French centime, from cent (hundred), from Middle French cent, from Old French cent (hundred), from Latin centum (hundred), from Proto-Italic *kentom (hundred), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱm̥tóm (hundred), from *déḱm̥ (ten).

PronunciationEdit

SymbolEdit

c

  1. Abbreviation of centime.

Etymology 5Edit

Abbreviation of centavo, from Spanish centavo (from ciento, from Old Spanish) and Portuguese centavo (from cento, from Old Portuguese cento), both stemming from Latin centum (hundred), from Proto-Italic *kentom (hundred), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱm̥tóm (hundred), from *déḱm̥ (ten).

PronunciationEdit

SymbolEdit

c

  1. Abbreviation of centavo.

Etymology 6Edit

Abbreviation of cykel, from Ancient Greek κῠ́κλος (kúklos), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷékʷlos (circle, wheel), from *kʷel- (to turn).

PronunciationEdit

SymbolEdit

c

  1. (physics) Abbreviation of cykel.

ReferencesEdit

AnagramsEdit


PolishEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (upper case C, lower case)

  1. The fourth letter of the Polish alphabet, called ce and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


PortugueseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Portuguese alphabet, written in the Latin script.
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From , short form of você (you).

PronounEdit

c m or f (plural 6)

  1. (Internet slang) Abbreviation of você.
    Synonym: vc

Etymology 3Edit

PrepositionEdit

c

  1. Abbreviation of com.



RomaniEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Yūsuke Sumi (2018), “C, c”, in ニューエクスプレス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, →ISBN, page 13

RomanianEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The fifth letter of the Romanian alphabet, called ce or and written in the Latin script.

Usage notesEdit

See C for pronunciation notes.

See alsoEdit


Serbo-CroatianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (uppercase): C

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (Cyrillic spelling ц)

  1. The 3rd letter of the Serbo-Croatian Latin alphabet (gajica), preceded by b and followed by č.


Skolt SamiEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (upper case C)

  1. The fourth letter of the Skolt Sami alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


SomaliEdit

LetterEdit

c lower case (upper case C)

  1. The twelfth letter of the Somali alphabet, called cayn and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


SpanishEdit

PronunciationEdit

(phoneme)

  • IPA(key): (Spain) /θ/, [θ]
  • IPA(key): (Latin America) /s/, [s]

(letter name)

  • IPA(key): (Spain) /ˈθe/, [ˈθe]
  • IPA(key): (Latin America) /ˈse/, [ˈse]
  • (file)

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Spanish alphabet, written in the Latin script.

SwedishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

See the etymology at #Translingual.

PronunciationEdit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /seː/
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /s/, /k/

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Swedish alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

c ? (genitive c:s)

  1. Abbreviation of Centerpartiet (Centre Party).

Alternative formsEdit


TurkishEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /d͡ʒ/
  • (letter name): IPA(key): /d͡ʒeː/

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Turkish alphabet, called ce and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


WelshEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Welsh alphabet, called ec and written in the Latin script. It is preceded by b and followed by ch.

MutationEdit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
cath gath nghath chath
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), chapter C, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

ZuluEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

c (lower case, upper case C)

  1. The third letter of the Zulu alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit